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Philadelphia is undoubtedly the greatest railway centre in the Kepnblic. 
The lines that centre here covera length of not less than eleven thousand miles, 
and they are all controlled by five companies, so that the arrangements are ad- 
mirably systemized and do not clash. P^rom whatever part of Canada, Mex- 
ico, or the United States the traveller starts by rail to travel in the Republic, 
the entire distance to Philadelphia can be traversed by steam with ease and 
speed. This arrangement extends from San Francisco to Halifax ; from Phila- 
delphia via New Orleans to the Rio Grande; from Philadelphia to Denver; 
from Niagara to the Gulf of Mexico. The whole American and Canadian 
system is of course in close connection with Philadelphia, but our own com- 
panies operating so many miles of railway, control all the lines and save the 
traveller a world of trouble and inconvenience. 

The Phila<lelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad is the great thorough- 
fare from Philadeli)liia to all points south, and south-west and even to the far 
west, passengers being carried thence over the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road 
and other connecting lines. The Philadeli)hia terminus of the P. \V. & B. R. R. 
is at Broad St. & Washington Avenue, where the company have erected one of the 
finest and most commodious depots in the city, a picture of which and also the 
freight depot is given in our frontispiece. Out from this depot 35 trains daily 
go down the track to Lamokin, Wilmington, Baltimore and intervening stations ; 
trains having their terminus at Lamokin and Wilmington being principally 
run as acconuuodation trains, distributing their loads of human freight all 
along the route. With double tracks of the best steel rails ; with very hand- 
some and convenient stations and depots ; su[)erb cars provided with air brakes. 
Miller platforms, and all valuable improvements as fast as their worth is tested ; 
with the very best engines that can be made, the Philadelphia, Wilmington and 
Baltimore Railroad is>.recognized by all competent authorities to be one of the 
best built, best equipped and best managed roa<ls in this or any other country. 

Great improvements have been made diu'ing the past five or six years, the 
greatest and most important of which was the changing of tlie mute of the road 
as far as Chester. Formerly the road ran along the river bank, but it was 
changed to its present course in a very short time after the plan was projected, 
and the first train went (tver tlie Darby Imjirovement route, for such it is called, 
on May 12th, 1873. The road for the first fifteen miles traverses the most fer- 


tile and productive portion of Delaware county, and this has been improved 
and its value enhanced by the Company's beautiful station buildings and the 
handsome suburban homes of many of Philadelphia's business and professional 
men. Indeed, one of the first attractions to the eye of an appreciative visitor 
along this improved route is the architectural beauty of the different depots and 
station houses. Railroad depots are generally ugly structures, but those on the 
Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Road are neat, tasteful, and of beautiful 
design and finish. The railroad company have not only erected handsome and 
convenient statiim buildings but they have also provided excellent roadway 
approaches, and at many of the depots laid out the adjacent grounds with 
flower-beds, shrubbery, or grassy lawn, as good taste would dictate. The 
soil on these sunny hill-sides responds kindly to the solicitations of culture. 
Fine fruits, — grapes, pears, apples and peaches — have always been raised here 
with great success, and both flower gardens and vegetable gardens flourish 
abundantly. Grass also grows most admirably, and no finer lawns can be 
found than the rich emeral slopes of some of tiie tine grounds in these neigh- 

At Darby, Moore's, Norwood, Sharon Hill, Ridley Park, and at other points, 
a series of new places have sprung up, owing their existence entirely to the 
railroad and the facilities thereby afforded for reaching the country side from 
the city streets. Clustering around the choicest and most desirable sites, groups 
of villas, country seats, cottages and suburban mansions have sprung into being 
since the i-ailroad opened opportunity for them, and new rural communities, 
enriched by all the advantages wealth and good taste command, are strung 
along the track like gems upon a necklace. These locations are not only at- 
tractive to the citizen seeking a home, but to the capitalists seeking investment 
as well. Few promises of profit ever realize so handsomely as land purchased 
by the square acre and sold by the square foot. And when the population is 
increasing and new homes are being established every day, conversion of prop- 
erty can never be a matter involving much difficulty or delay. The land intlie 
immediate vicinity of the stations is in the hands of parties who sell lots at 
reasonable prices and who are doing much to make the property desirable for 
residences. The scenery along the Darby Improvement is magnificent and has 
every element of landscape beauty and interest. The broad Delaware widen- 
ing toward the great bay, gives long vistas of water view enlivened by the con- 
stantly passing commerce of the second entrepot on the Atlantic Coast. To the 
eastward lies the great city, with its thousand steeples sliining in the summer 
sun; southward and westward the old town of Chester, and the hills there- 
about, bound the view, while northward tlie rich farming region of Delaware 
county adds pastoral beauty to the scene. Here are all the conditions fulfilled 
that mankind has ever sought in establishing rural neigjiborhoods near large 
cities. No railroad line from Philadelphia oHers such facilities for quick and 
frequent local travel as the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad 
between Philadelphia and Chester. Chester may be reached in twenty minutes 
and the intervening stations are accessible in from five to twenty minutes, al- 
most every half hour in the day. The Railroad Conqiany has made arrange- 
ments with real estate owners along the line, by terms of which whenever a 
dwelling liousc is erected the Company issues to tlu' owner a free annual jKis- 

KAIL HOAJ) (iruil': HOOK. 5 

sage ticket for eacliijilOOU each Imildiuf;' may cost. Tliat is, fur a luiiUling cost- 
ing $5000 a ticket will be issued tor live years, or live tickets for one year, and 
so on nj) to $10,000 — the limit of the agreement. F>nilding material is also 
transported at one-half the current freight rates, (ireat reduction is niade in 
the fare by partieswho ridv-on llicroad every (lay,.iud buy annual tickets. The 
single fare from Philadcliihia to any point between IJalliniore is on the aver- 
age about o.V cents per mile, while tlu' |iassengei's using an annual oi- niontlilv 
ticket pays at an average of only \ cent per mile, f'aiuily and connuutation 
tickets are sold at an avei'agc I'ate of '2\ cents per iinle lor each ride. 

Altliough it is only four years since tiie Darby Improvement was lirst oi)ened 
lor travel, yet ni'W biuldings have constantly been going np along the route and 
numerous little villages have sprinig up as if by magic, owing their existence 
entirely to the railroad and its facilities. A stranger's first imi)ression of one of 
these adniii-alily ]ilanne<l towns eaunol fail to be pleasant. Jle arrives at a ile- 
l)ot which is really an elegant building, surroundcMl by liandsomi- grounds and 
approached liy smooth, hard drives and well laid side walks. lie linds iiroad 
avenues pursuing the easiest grades, shaded with elms and maples, and the 
natural l)nil<ling sites of tlie place improved in such a manner as to develop 
the most attractive features of each, and at the same time to ]ireservc the mdty 
of the whole. 


The large and comfortable passenger depot atBroad and Washington Avenue 
was first erected in 1840, and it has been added to and improved until it is now, 
without exception, the most comfortable and convenient depot in the city of 
Philadelphia. It is accessible every two minutes by the ITnion line and the 
Thirteenth and Fifteenth street passenger railways. Extensive improvements 
and additions were made in tlie btiilding in the Spring of 187()^_o ne year ago^ 
to accommodate the Centennial travel, and the arrangements of the depot are 
now complete. It has a front on f^>road street of loO feet and altogether includ- 
ing head, is 400 feet long and 44 feet high. The head house is TOo feet 
deep, and a second story was added to this part last year, which now afiijrds ac- 
.comniodations for the engineering dejjartment, fire safes, ticket ofiices and other 
rooms, the want of which was formerly much felt from to year as the busi- 
ness of the road became larger and more complicated. ( )n tin' lirst lloor of the 
depot building is the ticket office, telegraph office, inward baggage room, out- 
ward baggage room, large hall, ladies' room, retiring room, restaurant, gent's 
room and several offices. On the second floor of the liea<l house are the ollices 
of the President, Secretary and Treasurer, Assistinil Ti'easuier, (iencral Ticket 
Agent, Superintendent, Engineei- and subordinates of tln' Couipany. The la- 
dies' room is neatly furnished, being supjflied with easy seats, large mirrors, and 
in snnnner time is cool and pleasant. The refreshment rooms and restaurant in 
the de])ot are first-class in their aj)pointments, and everything in the dining 
room has a clean and wholesome look aljout it. A first-class meal can always 
be obtained here at very moderate ])rices. The recent iui)inivemenls in this 
depot cost over 8200,000. Six tracks altogether run into the passenger depot 

Until last year the freight business of the company was transacted in the pass- 
enger station in Philadcliihia, but in the Spring of ]Xl>> a new fniiibt de]iot was 


built alongside the passenger dei^ot. The new freight house is constructed of 
brick and stone, with slate roof and is 440 by 100 feet. Two tracks for freight 
cars run into the building and the facilities for loading and unloading freight 
are excellent. There are twenty-two doors on each side, ten feet square to ad- 
mit teams bringing and hauling away freight. The "head house" of the freight 
depot is 100 feet front on Broad street, .35 feet deep and 37 feet high, which con- 
tain the offices of the freight department and the offices of the Baltimore Cen- 
tral Railroad Company. This latter road is one of the principal connecting 
lines of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad; the Baltimore 
Central Road connects with this road at Lamokin and runs into the depot at 
Broad and Washington Avenue over the tracks of the latter. The P. W. & B. 
Railroad Company have leased the Delaware Railroad for twenty-one years and 
operate it with their cars and engines and employees. This leased line is al- 
most as long as the main line from Philadelphia to Baltimore, and runs from 
Delaware junction through New Castle, Middletown, Smyrna, Dover, Harring- 
ton, Seaford, and other princijial towns to Delmar, nearly the whole length of 
the State of Delaware. Some idea of the business done by the P. W. & B. R. 
R. in passenger traffic may be given when it is stated tliat over the main line 
alone since 1870 the average number of passengers carried annually has been 
1,700,000. Last year, 1876, owing to the increase of travel to the Centennial 
Exhibition this number was more than doubled, and the immense number of 
2,818,560 was carried over the main line between Philadelphia and Baltimore, 

The Company own, altogether, one hundred and ninety-five (195) passenger, 
baggage, and express cars. Of these there are 56 twelve- wheel passenger cars ; 
71 eight-wheel passenger cars ; 2 twelve-wheel parlor cars ; 4 twelve-wheel 
smoking and baggage cars ; 1 3 eight- wheel smoking and baggage cars ; 5 
twelve-wheel baggage cars ; 13 eight-wheel baggage cars ; 4 eight-wheel chair 
cars; 1 twelve-wheel postal car; 7 eight-wheel baggage and mail cars; 15 
eight-wheel express cars; 3 eight-wheel mail cars, and 1 eight-wheel pay car. 
The freight department contains over 1200 cars. Within the past few years the 
number of passenger cars on the road have been largely increased. The splen- 
did new cars of the Company are indeed handsome, having all the modern con- 
veniences, and furnished with easy and comfortable seats. The car shops and 
machine works of the Company are located at Wilmington, where nearly all of 
the cars and locomotives now needed on the road are made. The number of 
locomotives now owned by the road is about eighty, which has been increased 
from forty-nine since 1864. The locomotives on this road are, with(jut excep- 
tion, the finest and handsomest of any road in the country, and they are made 
strong and durable, capable of running at tlie highest possible speed that can 
be attained on any road. The diameter of the drivers of most of the locomo- 
tives is 60 and 66 inches. The engine houses of the Company became insuffi- 
cient to contain the present stock, and one new engine house was built at Wil- 
mington and one at Gray's Ferry, during the year 1876. 

Altogether, there are about thirty passenger conductors in the employ of the 
Company. Many of these have been connected with the road for a long time, 
and they are always gentlemanly and obliging, and do all in their power to ac- 
commodate passengers. The President of the road is Mr. Isaac Hinckley, of 
Philadelphia, wlio, during his long career, hns))roved iiimself to bea carefii] :ind 

i;\ii, KoAi) i.riDi'; kuuk. / 

etHoient otiirer. Tlif SuinTinlcndi'iit of llu' iomiI is Me. II. l'\ Ki'iiiiry. lie 
has been connoctod with tlic lond Inr ;i nuniln'i- i>\' years, aiui tiic systfiiiatic 
nianagenient of tlic roail, and liic chu'lv-liko luamu'i- of its \v(iii<iiii;, is a sure 
guarantee of liis efheioney and of liis ex])ericn('e for tlii' resiKinsihlc position lie 
holds. The general ticket agcnl of tlu' i-oad is Mi-. (Jeo. A. I)adnian; \'iee 
President, Enocii Pratt, of JJaltinioie ; Sct'i-etary and Treasurer, Alfred Horner, 
Philadelphia; Assistant Trt'asnrer, Robert Craven, IMiiladelpiiia. Tht' l)iree- 
tors of the road are Sainnel M. Feiton, Tlnirlow, Pa.; William Sellers, Pliila- 
dei[ihia : Isaac Hinckley, I'liiladeliiiiia ; .losejdi Ilringliursl, \\'ilinini;l(in ; 
.Samuel Harlan, Jr., \\'iiiiiini;|oii ; (liaries Warner, \\'ilmington ; 'i'lionias 
Kelso, Baltimore; Enoch I'ratI, Italtimore; Thos. Hoiialdson, lialliniore; 
Samuel M. Shoemaker, Baltimore; .hu'oli Tome, Port Di'posit; iN'athaniel 
Thayer, Boston; William Minot, Bo.ston ; ('haries P. Bowditeh, Boston; 
Robert H. Stevenson, Boston. These gentlemen are jirominent manufacturers, 
capitalists, and real estate owners in their different localities, and they are all 
large stock owners in the road. AVe have, as yet, referred but briefly to a few 
of the many attractions and advantages which the road otters. In the follow- 
ing pages of this work, containing the description of llu' towns, villages, sta- 
tions, industrial establishments and business houses on the line, the reader will 
find these i)eculiar advantages portrayed more in detail. The publisher takes 
great pleasure in calling attention to the various firms whose business sketi'hcs 
appear in the following pages. Many of them are the oldest and largest in 
their respective localities, and all of them are energetic and thoroughly re- 
liable. There is a rivalry and emulation in all trading and manufacturing 
districts that is the very life of commerce, and anything that tends to develop 
progress, quicken to more active exertion, or give stronger impulse to business 
energies, must result in i)ermanent benefit to all. These, and similar consider- 
ations, are the incentives to inserting these sketches in this |)ul)lication. 


This is the first station i-eached after passing out Washington Avenue from 
the depot on Broad street. There are no station buildings here, but tlu'ri' are 
long platforms for the accommodation of passengers getting on and ofi' (he 
trains. In the immediate vicinity are located the United States Arsenal and 
the Marine Hosjiital. The city has been built up rapidly in this section, and 
dwelling houses stand thick all around, wliile there are also numerous large 
manufacturing establishments in the neighborhood. After leaving Arsenai^ 
station the road follows a slight curve, and passing brick yards on tlie left, and 
planing mills, Harrison Bros.' Chemical Works, Bower's Chemical Works, and 
the Gray's Ferry Printing Ink Works on the right, we come to (Jray's I'erry 
Bridge, and in full view of the Schuylkill River. The view of the Schuylkill 
here is interesting, with its boats continually passing and rei>assing, and across 
it, on the West Philadelphia side, the Philadelphia Almshouse, the Pennsyl- 
vania University, and other public edifices are to be seen. Crossing the river a 
short distance above, is the beautiful iron draw-bridge of the Peniisyivaiiia 
Rail Road. This is a model of the new class of bridges, combining beauty, 
grace, and apparent lightness, with great solidity and strength. Over it the 
Company's long trains of weighty merchandise cross on their way to \\'ashing- 


ton vStreet Wliarf, upon the Delaware, as a point for shipment, wliile the largest 
sloops or barges heavily laden, make their way beneath the draw. The Gray's 
Ferry Bridge, over which our train passes, is an old structure, erected about 
1838, and though built almost entirely of wood, is fully as strong and as safe as 
any iron bridge in the cohntry. It is also constructed with a draw, though of 
an ancient pattern, and besides the rail road tracks has carriage and footway 
passages. The Spruce and Pine Street Passenger Railway Company liave com- 
menced the erection here of large brick stables and depot. They are jjeing 
built of brick, and will be completed about the first of July. As the train en- 
ters the bridge, extensive rolling mills, close to the rail road, are to be seen, 
which, at the time of our visit, were in full blast. 


Immediately after passing over the bridge, thetrain arrives at Gkay's Ferry 
Station. The buildings of the Company here are neat and substantially built 
structures. Besides tlie ticket and telegraph office, there is a new engine house 
containing eight stalls for locomotives. The Junction Rail Road, a line estal;- 
lished for uniting some of the great thoroughfare lines, connects at this point, 
and conveys the express trains, with their passengers, from Baltimore, Wash- 
ington and the South, over to the Pennsylvania Rail Road Depot, for connec- 
tion with that line, without changing carriages. This system, while it deprives 
the Philadelphia hotel keeper of many a stray customer, is a highly prized con- 
venience to travelers hastening from the North to the South, or from the East 
to the West, or the reverse. The tracks of the West Chester & Philadelphia 
Railroad Company also pass about two hundred yards from this point. All 
around the station here are rail road tracks pointing in various directions, and 
heavily laden, and empty freight cars can be seen on the sidings, waiting to be 
sent on their destination at the right time. A short distance below tlie station 
is the " coal house " of the Company, containing coal for fuel in the locomo- 
tives. On an eminence, a short distance to the left, is a large monument of 
granite, erected by the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Rail Road Com- 
pany, at the time the road was first built. On three sides of the monument are 
the names of the first officers and managers of the road and its branch lines. 
On the fourth side is the following : " Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore 
Rail Road Company, formed A. D. 1838, by an union of the several charters 
obtained from Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland. Work commenced 
July 4th, 1835. Completed December 25, 1838. Cost, $4,000,000." 

It has often been asked from whence this locality derived its name. Where 
the station buildings, tracks and platforms now are, was located Gray's Garden, 
something less than a century since ; a famous resort, in its time, and from jxt- 
etic descriptions extant in our old magazines and journals, a very ])retty place. 
The river at that time was crossed by ferry boats, over Gray's Fei-ry, and this 
name was afterwards given to the place, the bridge, and the street running to- 
wards it. There are now in the vicinity some really beautiful suljurban resi- 
dences and grounds, especially to the right, over near the West Chester Road. 
The most charming and beautiful villa in the neighborhood is Bartram Hall, 
the subject of our illustration. 



hai;ti;a,m hai,i> 

Tliis is the lionic and i)i-<i]>rr(y nC A. M. ]'];ist\vick, l<;s(|.,;i ii^iinil |iiiiti'ssiiin;il 
j;riitlciii;in, liviiii;- lii'i-f wiili his Ihiiiiiv. < )\-i.'r a (■ciiliiry a.i;(( this |ini|ii'ii v was 
known as liartram's IJotanical (ianlcn, the JKina' <il' John IJai'lraiii, a distin- 
fi,uislie(l natMi-itlist, a ci)nteini)()rarv of Washin,<;l(in, I'lanklin and Laraycllf, anil 
a pliiiosoplier ol' tlic liiirhest rei)nte at lioine and in Eiir<)j)o. Tlie suri'oinidini;' 
grounds art' heautifully hiid out, and show many sjn'cimcns, sliii iivinn, of tlic 
raiv ve'ux'ialion Inrniri'ly (■()nt'ctrd \ivvv. < )l' conrsc, ihe ln'aiitirnil v iii-nanu'nlrd 
viihi he-re now, Imiit in the Xoriiian style of arciiiteetiire, is of niodei'n con- 
stnietion, l)Ut liie phiee is still called Bartraiu ilall, in honor of its former 


The tliiril station on the road is Fifty-eighth Street, three and a-liaif miles 
from the dejiot. Every traveler on the road is struek with the heaiily and aii- 
of neatness characterizing the station buildings and their surroundings at (his 
|>oint. They are built of brick, with slate roof, and ornamented lioili within 
and out in the highest style of architectural beauty. The Presliyterian Home 
for Willows is located about a quarter of a mile from the station. This home 
is established by the Presbytery of Philadelphia, and is a worthy and commen- 
dable institution. The buildings ai'c situated on a knoll, and lieing coiisiiiieied 
of a beautiful green stone, form one of the chief attractions of the idace. Al- 
though this station and the surrounding country is within the city limits, vt't it 
presents every appearance, and has all the attractions of a subui'ban I'omnnmitv. 

A nundjer of gentlemen doing business in Philadeliiliia, reside here the year 
round, the most prominent of which is Thomas Ellis, of Ellis i^ Sons, auction- 
eers, on Chestnut street. Sanniel Gibson, engaged in the shipping business; 
Edward Dixon and Isaac Dixon, firm of Dixon t^' Son, jewelers; Thomas P. 
Sargeant, clerk ; Charles Mcllvaine, doing business on f-ocnst street, resides 
here in a tine house; Mr. Hugh Mcllvaine, a capitalist, owns a large dairv 
farm here, and a tine mansion dwelling house. The grounds are handsomidy 



laid out in tlic higiicsl style oi' lan(lscii|ie art. Plonry Scrrill, engaged in the 
insurance business, has a- line residence u short distance Ijelow the station. AVin. 
V. Longstreth, with three sons, resides near here the year round. The sons fol- 
low (liHerent professions and lines of business in the city. ^Ir. .James (ars- 
well, of Philadeliihi;!, owns a tine sunuuer residence on Woodland Avenue. 

^ ^ ~ " - ^'^ -%>^ .^'^X ^\ 

m 1 'MP 


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Mr. iSaiuuel Gibson is the owner of a large Irael of land in tiie vicinity, which 
is divided into lots and sold as sites lor suburban homes. This is a good loca- 
tion for those who are called early to business, and are re(|uircd to stay late. 
Thirteen trains run each way daily, and it is (july ten minutes ride to the (lc|)ot 
on Broad street. 


This is the station for visitors to Mount Moriali ( 'emetery, the culrauc<' to 
which is about quarter of a mile from the station. It is just beyond the ciiy 
limits, though before many years the streets of West I'hiladclpliia will extend 
bevond it. On the Darby road quite a little village has si>rung up. It contains 
two hotels, the Mount Moriah Hotel and the Excelsior House. Daniel Piutler 
owns a country store here and James Dougherty owns the blacksuuth sho[i. The 
princii)al residents of the place are ^Villiam Leacock, horse dealer, J. Shriever, 
photographer, Walter N'ancol!, Ilorisl ; these gentlemen carry ou business in 
Philadelphia. Neal Strau owns a truck farm here of eight or ten acres, and 
Mrs. (.'rutliers living on Hay Lane, owns a. farm of altout thirty acres. Other 
residents of the i)lace are Ivlward Kane, itadlcy Wiles, .Mexander Neally, and 
Horatio P. Connell, Secretary and 'I'reasurer of the Mount ^loriah Cemetery 
Conqianv. The Railroad ('ompauy will erect handsome and convenient station 
buildings here in a short time. TIk- Moiuit Moriah Cemeterv here eoveiN an 

i; All, K().\i> (HI i>i; r.ooK. • 1 1 

area of 227 acres, 80 of wliicli arc siliiat(.'(l in Delaware county and beyond the 
city limits. The tiround is ln'antil'ully rolliiiij; and well diversilied wilh hill and 
vale, (illeriiiii- a splendid (iiipcirtiinily lor e'nilicliishinL; the whoh' trad. 'Po 
indicate somewhat the poiuilarity of Mount Moriah, we may mention that 
there are about lo,5UU lot holders. There have been t^iver 2'),(l<)0 inter- 
ments, and the lot imiiroxeinents and the iiionumenls and tombs are amoUL;- the 
most artistic to be found anywhen^. It is snmewhal dillicult to stale all the 
I'ausi's which conlributt' to make this t'cmetery such a favorite one amonu' our 
best class of citizens, not tlu' least in these days of a^italion i'onse(|Uent upon 
the rajiid growth of the city is the feelinii' of absolute security that this exieii- 
sive and beautihil necropolis will never be dislnrbcd by the eneroaehmeuts of 
the city's L;riiwth. The most favoralile terms are oflered to all wlm desire to se- 
cure a lot in tlu'se interestiuii i;rounds. The Secretary, Mr. H. I*, ('omicll, can 
be I'ound at the uronuds almost any day, and will .i;ive inloiiuatinn in regard to 
all points fiH'i'lv. The city otlice of the cemetery is at l.">2 South Sixth street. 


This station, four and a-half miles from the c'ity, has as liiU' bnildiuiis as ;ire 
to be found anywhere along the road. Near here are located the conscivalories, 
flower gardens, seed farm and handsome residence of Robert IJuist, jr., wlmsc 
seed warehouse is located al 1)22 and !»24 I\[arket street, I'hiladelphla. Mr. 


Ihlist's Inriu embraces ovi'r 1 o(l aci'es of the very bes| land in Peiuisyl vania. and 
it is cultivated in the best style, and kepi in admirable urder. Mr. Hiiis! 
resides ln're wilh his family ihe (Utire year. His residence is a bcaii- 
lihil three-storv stone structure —wilh a veranda extending iu iVunl an<l sur- 
nmnded bv a well k<pt lawn eoulainiug a budsl evei-y Ihiwer, shi'nband tree 
known to till' lloris! oi- scedmau. It is an old country seal and formerly 
belonged to the I'alher of the present owner. Mr. .VIbert I'.onuallnii, a rich and 


successful Philadelphia merchant, after whom the station is named, resides in 
the vicinity in a hirge mansion house, with extensive and highly adorned 
grounds. The heautiful evergreens and other trees are of large growth and are 
nicely arranged, and form a real paradise here during the hot days of July and 
August. The residence and stables of Mr. Thomas Carrigas are located a short 
distance to the left of the station, and are constructed of stone and are very at- 
tractive. Mr. Charles Baker, a lawyer, resides in a splendid stone house on 
Darby road. Thomas Gesner, of Gesner & Brothers, brick makers, lives here 
and owns a fine house and lawn. Near by is the hotel of Isaac Wood. The 
Railroad C'omiiany own several houses in tlie vicinity, and also a tract of land 
extending along a ridge on the right, studded witli elegant sites for country 
seats, which in time will be so occtipied. In a little grove near thestation ij> tlie 
Episcopal Cliurch, of which Kev. Charles Mason is pastor. This is an old but 
beautiful place of worship. The grave-yard here contains the tomlj^tones of 
many who were buried here more than a hundred years ago. There is also on 
the gi-ounds a Sunday School and private day school in connection with the church, 
of over 100 scliolars. About the station are reai-edmany of the rare and beautiful 
plants kept in the conservatories of Mr. Buist ; and even in the winter the lady 
agent here cultivates ])lants and flowers in pots extensively in the station build- 
ing. For a suburban home very near the city no better location can lie found 
than BonnaHbu. 


This station takes its name from the village of Paschalville here, somewhat of 
a manufacturing town, containing a population of about 1500 persons. It is an 
old place, and was (]uite a village long before the Railroad ran thi-ough it. Tlu' 
old nucleus is now l)eing surrounded with new growth from the city. It is in 
fact a continuation of tlie city, and will before many years, be connected witli 
the pavements of tlie fast spreading metrojiolis. In the meantime it is a pretty 
and attractive rural neighborhood, where property is steadily improving. It 
has i>aved streets, gas, water-works and the Darby line of street cars pass 
through the village. It contains a Catholic church, an Episcopal church and a 
Methodist churcli ; the pastor of the latter church is Rev. J. S. Lame. Tiierc 
is a large jMiblic scliool in course of cri'ctioii, wliicli, wlicii ciinijilctcd, will lie the 
tincsl cdilicc in (lie jilaci'. It is built of bricl< with a front of ScrpentitU' slonc, 
and is Ibnr stories in height. Tlie Paschalville IvitiM'ary .Society, an association 
for the iiiiprox cnient and advancement of old and yonng, iiu'cts once a week, and 
the exercises, wiiicii ai'e always })ublic, are very interesting. There is also a 
Relief Association in the village to helj) the potu- and sick whenever necessary. 

The most important business feature of Paschalville is the Natiimal Drove 
Yards, hotel and stables of which Messrs. Cochran, Ore and Williams are the 
proprietors. This enleriirise was comiuenccil in the year ISTo, at which time 
the large, magiiillcenl hotel and stables were erected. Tlu' lioti'l tliroiiglioul is 
arranged and fnrnislie<l in lirst-elass slyh' and oilers aeeoiinijodations for ovei' 
one hundred guests, it is built of brick, four stories in height, with a mansard 
roof The slables are also of hriek with slate roofs. Since llie e<.ni|)lelion of 
this hotel the village has iieen growing rajiidly, and at the lime of our visit 
seven houses wi're iieing erected on TOtli street by Mordecai Sheldi-ake. ISIessrs. 
Odgen & Brother are the proprietors of two cotton and woolen mills here, one a 

JtAIL KoAi) (JllDK 1!()()K. 13 

stone mill and tin.' otluT ul' IVanu', ami rniiilny allnm'llici- alidiit >i\l\- hands. 
McLaughlin iS: Kfiiy alsd own a mill luri' tor tlu- maniiraclnir dl' < (iiinn and 
shoddy goods. Tiu'st' mills liavi.' lii'i-n long rstalilislu'd. Tliry arr Icicalcd (m 
Cobb's creek, over which the i-ailroad passes in- a finely built iron biitigc 
Woodland avenue is the iirincijiid liusiness tliorouglifare in I'aschalville. 'I'lierc 
a re three hotels in the place, the Blue liell, Kingsc.ssing hotel an<l the Ivigh' holtd. 
Cross & Anderson, dealers in flour, feed, Ac, have a large eslablishnicnt iierc 
and do (|uite a flourishing business. Doctor ( )dgen is the most iiromincul jilivsi- 
cian in the village,ando\vnsa line residence on Wood land avenue. Mrs.TwaddcIl, 
a widow lady, owns a jircity stone ci>ttage near (lie station. Tiie I'riesi nf the 
Catholic church resides in a ni'atly fnrnisiie<l house adjaivnt to the chui'eh. Mr. 
P. ]I. Hoopes is the owner lit" a tine home on the iMirnernt' \\'iHidl;iud a\emie 
and Seventy-second street. ^I. M. Sheldritii is a large pmperty (iwner, .nid lie 
has (lone more to improve the i)lace than any otiier one man in the idwu. The 
Kailroad Comi)any also owns a large tract of improved land abouf liie \illage. 
which they sell at reasonable figures for those desiring sites for stoics i>v dwell- 
ings. The land about here lies high and is consecjnently well drained. Tiie 
passenger busine^ss of this station is very large and it is constantly increasing. 
The station building is a well ajipointed and sul)stantially Imilt sirueluie ami 
adds nnich to tiie appearance of tiie plai'c. Tiie etlicicnt and oMiging ageiil of 
the comiiany here is Mr. W. T. Wiiiteloclc. 


Near this station, five and tliree-fourth miles from Philadelphia, is located the 
borough of Darliy, the seat of important manufacturing interi'sts, and one of the 
oldest towns in the State. Mills were imilt iieix' as e;irl}- as KilKi, and the town 
was divided into I'pper and Lower Larliy in ]7S(). Tiie place contains about ISOO 
inhabitants, who are i"or tiie most jiart ]irogressive and enii'r)irising, and liiere 
are in the vicinity a nuiiiiier of lirst-class business houses, 'i'iie luosi pidiiii- 
ncnt of these in Darby iiorougli is tiie store of .1. 15. Powell, H. P. IJoyd. 
dealer in linnber and ; .Mrs. Wolfendeu, dry goods; W. T. Ilimlinu. 
flour and feed; .]. 1>. t^iiaw, drugs; C. W. King, lioots aii<l shoes. A iiinii- 
ber of manufactnrin.g cstabiishmenls. principally coitoii and wiKilen millv. are 
dotted all along Darby creek, owiu'd i)y Kicliard Tiiateher. W . I ». Il.Senill. 
firm of .Vndrews A- ]Iil)iK'rd, Dwigiit P.. l^dicr and S.ileis lloHinan. Dari.y 
has |)avcd stret'ts, gas, water-works, and is built up in sipiai-es ol' liriek dw clliiiLi's. 
and ill fact flic iniiabit;ints enjoy ;iii the ciiaraclerisl ics of city life. ii is con- 
nected with tin' cit\-, not only liy tiiis railroad. Imt hy the Darliy P.-isseiiger 
Railway, whicii is umlerthe coiilrol of llie ( 'hesmnl and Walnut slreel i'as^eii- 
ger Railway Comi)any. 

The beauty of many locallliis oil Dariiy creek is most inviting to those 
who appreciate fine landscajie. Tliis slreani, whiiii is na\ igabie for small eoal 
vessels as far as tlu- borough of Darliy, is useless for commerce, .and iheiefoie 
charming in asjiect, above that point, and inig.ites :i lovely succe-si<in of gentle 
valleys and wo(t<led glens. Some <if the most pnuiiineiil Imsiiiess ami profess- 
ional gentlemen of Philadelphia, appieeialiiig llie alliaelioiis ,,( liii' D.iiliy re- 
gion, have settled in varitnis choice localities near the slalioii, the Inisiness of 
which is raiiidly on the increase as its advantages .ire becomim; known. .Vmong 



the many fine residences we select as tlie siilijc'ct of our illustration at this 
point the residence and grounds of Mr. James. Price. This is really a heautiful 
seat, and the grounds are liandsomSly laid out and ornamented with rare flow- 
ering plants and fine shade trees. North of the horough is the quiet old man- 
sion of Mr. Samuel Bunting, now occupied by his son Ridgway. Mr. Bunting- 
is a member of the firm of S. & J. S. Bunting, auctioneers, 232 Market street, 
Philadelphia, and has recently built a splendid residence at Sharon Hill and 
removed to tlie same. Thos. Garrigues, J. Wolfenden, and several others, were 
building new houses at the time of our visit. The Darby Improvement Asso- 
cialiou own a well located tract of land in tlie vicinity of Darby, and tliey are 
doing a great deal to make their property desirable for residences. The ground 

:y'^' (ll^^^J^, ^ ifH*- 


is liigii iicrc, and llic citizens art' favored wilii an abiiudanl sujii'ly of pure, sweet 
water. All the priuci|ial religious (U'nominations li;i\e churclies in Darby. 
'Hie largest eliureli in the place is the Mcthodi-^l, of wliicli l»e\-. l>a\il Smith is 
pastor. 'I'lie l''iiis<'<ipalian ('iiureli is a iieautiful bnildiug, and the Presbyterian 
is also a pretty sacred ediliee. ()lliei- deuoiiiinal i<m< ai'c well represenled. 
aiiinug which the r>;i|ilists lia\e a large and iieantifidly designeil churcli. 

Looking tVoiu the car windows, the country ;dioiit |).arby tliroiigb wliicli llie 
rail roa<l passes is open ;uid gentiv rolling, and extends in !lii'< manner iicarlx' 
to the ni'xt sl;ition, where the deep cuts and ravines again obstruct llie view. A 
short distance abovt' the borough a |>retly little rividel breaks down tliroiigii llie 

i;.\n, \ut \ n i;iii)i: r.ooK. 


hills Id I);ii-lpy criTk, Inriiiiiij;,;! (U'cp riiicsl-sli.-idr.l -Ini, which, to the hivci-- n|' 
I he |iiriiirfsi|uc, is ,-1 hiMiiliful spnt, aiKJ will |.i-iivc ;ii hiriii- in ihr uiii'iii siiiiiincr 
(lays. Thr i-(iiii:inlic 'h'li, the \\i(h\ ui-(vii, willi ihr -iviii s:ii l-whil.iicil 
rivor hi'viiiid, iIk' villa-crciwdcii hills, die lariii semes dii eilhei' side, mid ihe 
eily ililii in ihe dis!;inee, lui'lii :i ei)iidiiii;il ioii ol' l;iiidsea|n_' aM raelioiis i-arelv lo 
he met. 



The station Imildiny; liere is a verv inilty design, and shows how a de|i^)t can 
he made to adorn a hindseape, instead of heiiig a l)h>l npoii il. It is eonstrnelid 
of ser)ienline s'.one, and 'he interioi' is linished with hard wimmI, hiuhly pol- 
islied. and llie waiting rooms are models ofeondort and eleganee. The Shaion 
Land Association, wi'h Wni. \Vard, J'x;., ol' ( 'hesler, and W. I >. II. Serrill, 
£Is(j., of I)ai'hy, at its head, have done much to im|n'o\-e and i inhellish the place 
witli jjretly i-esidenci s. Th<_-v own a laii^e tract of land iiere, which has heen 
surveyed and laiil out into s!i'cets;nid l<rs, with a view to np-rearing a pretty 
vilhige, an<l already a great many lots lia\e heen Imih n]ion hy a good class of" 
owners. Tlie loeation is an adnni'ahle one, and has hec n {iil vaii'tageonsly laid 
out, attiij'ding many choice selections lor villas , and collages. 'I'he gi'ntlemen 
owning these lots are liheral, intelligent and enlerpri-ing, who ^il.adly u(dcome 
and co(iperate with any jndicions plan ol' improvement. They ha\-e seen this 
loealitv grow and prosper in their hands until Sharon Hill has hi come one ol 
the prettiest, if. not the ])rettiest, snhurhan village on the I'hiladelphia, Wil- 
mington tV: IJaltimore Kail Road. Almost a snhnrh <ir lh<' city, its coiiliLjniiy 
j)laees it in innnt'diate access, while in character it is thoi-onghly iiiial, and 
walks throngh lanes, or rides hetween fields and pastures, ;ire pleasines nincli 
api)reciated here during the long sununer evi'iiings aftei- nlninin:: from the 
city, or in the morning hefore going to husiness. 

The sightly points hei-e are fast heing occu|iicd hy hand-om<' nsidences. 
Near the station is the tine hrick resi<lence of Mrs. I<"lla<;. Know lion, wife of 
John G. Knowlton, deceased, who w;is owner of the large machine simps at 



tliis place. Tliese works were erected at a cost of $50,000, liy Mr. Knowlton, in 
lS(i(), and were operated by him successfully until the latter i)art of 1875, when 
he was stricken down and died, greatly mourned liy all who knew him. The 
works are on the. opposite side of the rail road, and are substantially built of 
brick, with a slate roof. The line old homestead of the late Captain Joseph 
McMahin, is located at the corner of Sharon .\venue and Philadelphia and 
Chester Turnpike, on the south side of the latter, and has a large lawn of sev- 
eral acres, and very fine grounds. On the u])per side (jf the pike is the large 
and handsoiiie stone mansion of Samuel Bunting, of the firm oi' S. cV .1. S. 
Hunting, auctioneers, 2o'2 and 284 Market street, I'hiladeliiliia. Mr. Hunting's 


house has a large lawn and modern stal)le buildings attaclieil, the latter linishcd 
in polished hardwoods. The cost of the house alone was i!>25,0(M). On the 
same road, near the last named place, is the frame residence of Clement M. 
Eiddle, President of the Permanent Exhibition at Philadelphia. It is a very 
tine structure, surrounded by a beautiful lawn. Adjoining this is the residence 
ol' Isaat' ir. ('lothier, an illusiration of wliicli is given on this pagi'. Mr. 
Clothier is a member of the dry goods lirm of Slrawln'idge A' Clothier, l<]iglitli 
and Market si reels, rbil'a. Adjoining the property of MvA 'lothier, on the west, 
are the homesli'ads of I)r. >[. Fisher i>ougst relii, and William Jackson, both 
noted for their la rye and beautiful grounds. I >iii'elly oppo.sile to the latter is 

I;AII, KdAK (MIDK ItdOK. 17 

tlic tine stone mansion of Samuel II. Mattsoii, of tlii' tirm of Mattson it Diiks, 
Mereiiant Tailors, t'iiestniit Street, IMiila(lel])liia, wlio lias alxml (iftv acres of 
the finest farming land in tliis part of the iduntry. lvis( of ihc latter is the 
brick residence of Josei)h Sliaih'ross, who has a farm of alioiil scvenly-tive 
acres, under a fine state of cuhivation, situated alioiU half a mile IVom his pres- 
ent residence, on the line of the rail road lietweeii Sharon Hill and ( ihuoldcn. 

On Hook Avenue, at the southern end of the villat;(\ is Sharon School, a 
Catholic institution in charge of the Sisters of Charitv, for llic idiicaliou of 
voiuig ladies. The building aH()rds ai'commodation forali<iut oui' hnmlrcd and 
fifty scholars, and the grounds are beautifully shailcd and ornamented with 
taste. South of the academy, is the old honu'slead ot" the laic 'I'liomas Sparks, 
shot mauufactiu'er, Philadelphia. It is a large stone mansion, willi exieiisiw 
and well arranged grounds, and has an unusually high ohstivalory, which com- 
mands a view of the suia'ouuding tduutry ranging from leu lo forty miles. 
Ni'ar this is the farm of Charles LafleHy, coiUaining about one hundred acres 
of laud, and the farm of (liarles Lloyd, both in good staU' ol' cidii valioii, and 
have good buildings. There are several smaller farms witii less expensive 
buildings, though the land is well cultivated. That of Kachcl IJonsall contains 
20 acres ; Edward Ileacock 35 acres; Joseph Lewis 50 acres ; John Kitts 80 
acres; W. D. H. Serrill 60 acres; Isaac Home 40 acres; \Vm. IJoone 'M) acres; 
(ieo. W. Burton 30 acres; Geo. Swayne 50 acres, and Edwin Kice 50 acres. 

There are a number of houses directly around the station, which to build, 
cost from 82,000 up to $10,000, as follows: Residence of Wm. Kiugsley, i)ro- 
prietor of Kestaurant at Broad and Prime Depot, $10,000 ; (ieo. ( iarviu. Coal 
Merchant, Philadelphia, $7,000; John II. Taggart, editor and iiro|irieloi- .Siiii- 
(huj Tiinc.^, Phil'a, $(i,000 ; M. S. Frink, Phil'a, $5,000; Sanuiel I'rian, Carpen- 
ter, Sharon Hill, $4,000; Aaron Bonsall, Carpenter, Sharon Hill, $4,000; 
Peter Clark, Supervisor P. W. A B. R. R., Sharon Hill, $3,500; (J. W. Mel- 
ville, U. S. Navy, $3,000; S. A. Slocond) $3,000, and Edward P. .Johnson 
$2,000; also, several uuire in course of eret'tion. The advantage of judicious 
selection of site, and intelligent supervision of the growth of a suhiuhan settle- 
ment, is manifest at Sharon Hill. Experience and skill have bciii made 
availal)le in laying out and building up the village, and the result atiiirds a very 
favorable contrast with tlie hap-hazard, scattering country village, consisting of 
one street and a back lane. 

Many of the gentlemen here, and at other plac'cs on the road, keep a siiaii of 
driving horses. Keeping horses is not expensive in the country, and to tliuse 
who care to indulge in the luxury, the i)leasant hill-sides between the fre([uent 
stations, are (piite as desirable as the village avenues near the stations. A short 
ride to the depot, or perhaj)s to eitlier one of two depots, is often considered an 
advantage rather than an objection. 


Tlve next station below Sharon Hill is Glenolden, about eight miles from 
Broad Street Depot. Here are located tlie well-known pic-nic and excursion 
grounds of the Rail Road Company, containing sixty acres. These gromids are 
charming in aspect, and contain all the natural Ijcautics comliined in Avood, 


lake -len and valley, that were ever known. Tliere is a large covered plat- 
f<,rni "erected for playing or dancing, or in whicli tl.e excursionist, v.m seek 
slieltei dnring a storm Tliere are also ample gnmnds for Uall ami cr.M,uet 


playing, and a beautiful lake, witli boats, near by, as a nienns of giving the 
young all the requisites necessary for a day ..f snc^ial rerrealion and cnj-yment. 
The Company ten.ler these grounds free f, all who ,lesire to use then.. 1 hey 
are very popular with the ditterent Smiday-sch,.nls and s,.cu'Iks ..i IniuU.i- 
phia, and are occupied almost every day in June an.l July by luuMlreds nt peo- 
ple who have ran away, for a time, from the city heat and dust. 

UAi], noAD crinK r.ooK. 


All aliixit ( ilciKildcn is :i scvnr of rich l-irni himl-, wlicrc >uil of :iii cxcd- 
k'Ul (luaiity is iin))ni\-cil Id the uliuosi hy a rrtiiK'd and |ir(ii;ri'ssi\H' ai;i'icidliiral 
l)()pulatii)n. Till' I'anncrs in tlii' \irinily are ( iiMir.n'i' ( i. KiiowKs, .Jas. Kiinwlcs, 
Bc'tlud Custard, llolifrt Ilcndfrson, and l^plii-aiin Kidnway. 'riusc i;tiitlciiicn 
all own I'anns ran<;'in<;' in size trimi imc hundred (d ijircc hnndi\'d acres. 'I'hen 
tliere are several \\\nt larni on a less exlensive scale. James Marshall owns a 
farm of 20 acres, Lewis Cook one of ;!0 acres, Kphraim Inskeep one of AO acres, 
(ieors'e Jordon one of '20 acres, near \\\v station. I'esides his lar<i;e farm, Mr. 
Rid.ii'way also owns a i^rist an<l saw mill. The Kidley Park Land Association 
own somi' l>i'aulil'id land near the excursion ground, and here are oflered some 
lem|itinLi; sites for residences. The exodus from thet-ity — persons escapint;- hii;h 
taxes and rents — has already invadi'd the seclusion of ( Jlenoldeu, an<l many 
U'cntlemi'n's places are soon to lie estalilished in the viciinty. 'i'he most pi-omi- 
nent of those that have come here to live are Dr. .1. .1. ^Vhit^•, enn:ii;e(l in the 
dental liusiness near Twelfth and Chestnut streets. Dr. liooni' owns a line resi- 
tlence about half a mile from the station. Near the lattiM- place is a I'reshyte- 
rian Church. There is also a cotnitry store here, kept liy I'^ranklin Lloyd, and 
a hlacksmith and wheel-wriiiht sho]) helonfjinn' to Auyiistus .Miller. Lewis ilai-p 
is the hlacksmith rentint;- the shop. The station ]\vw is an eletianl design, and 
lieinn' situated on hi<;h uround is always cool and pli'asant in the warmest 
weather. The jdatforms and sheddins;- are made unusually lony for tlu' henetit 
of excursionists. 



^-ZZ-^JS^M^' '"^M^ s.^t< '^^^'^^' 

■ -' V _ja I- a 

\(ii;\V(i(M) STATION. 


Norwood station, at the suhurhan villai;-e of Norwood, is eitihl and adiall 
miU's from Philadelphia. The place has urown u]i enl ii'ely since llu'i-ouleol 
the rail I'oad was chany('(l live yi'arsaij;o. 'i'lie lowu was esl.-iMished liv .Mr. 
John Cochran, formei'ly of (heslei-, IhiI now of j'liiladi'iphia, who puri'hased a 
tract of ijronnd here au<l laid it onl inio lots, wilh slicets i-nnninu (hroiiuh. .V 
nundier ot' Lrentlemen transactinn' husiness in Philadi-lphia reside here tiii' year 
round, enjoying the ln'autiful situation under the diflerent aspect of the seasons, 


and using the cars daily. To their residences are added, this season, several new 
dwellings, which were in course of erection at the time of our visit. Alto- 
gether, there are about thirty cottages and dwellings in Norwood. J. E. Coch- 
ran resides here in a very pretty and nicely painted cottage on Mohawk 
avenue. Near Mr. Cochran's cottage, is the residence of William Arkless, 
built of frame, three stories high, and painted a light drab color. The dark 
brown cottage to the right of this is occupied by a Mr. Long, a liquor mer- 
chant of Philadelphia. The square, box-like cottage, drab color, is occupied 
by Mr. Hutton, of Baldwin's Locomotive Works. Both the membei-s of the 
firm of Young & Creigher, paper box manufacturers, Philadelphia, own cot- 
tages here. They are built precisely alike, front on the same street, and are 
only about one hundred feet apart. The design of these cottages is very pretty, 
but their color, light green, is not so much admired. Elias Kane, one of the 
attaches of the Philadelphia Evening Star, Thomas Gesner, and Mr. Bagley, 
also live here. Mr. John Dufty carries on farming here in a small way. The 
large brick three-story residence just outside the limits of Norwood is the 
property of James Trainer. John Cochran and tiie firm of Cochran Bros., 
own several houses here which they rent on very reasonable terms. The station 
agent at Norwood Station, Mr. H. Miller, is a carpenter by trade, and is build- 
ing himself a frame cottage near the rail road. The large summer boarding 
house here belongs to the Cochrans. It is a four-story frame building, and is 
located in a beautiful grove containing almost every variety of forest trees of 
full growth ; the hickory, the oak, the chestnut, the walnut, towering above the 
neatly painted edifice and producing a charming effect. As will be noticed by 
our illustration, Norwood Station is fully as attractive and as highly finished as 
any of the other stations on the road. The interior is finished in hard woods 
and is really beautiful. It is easy to foresee that before many years Norwood 
will be a pretty suburban town, with several hundred inhabitants of the very 
best class of people. Lots are being sold and houses are constantly going up 
all the time. The R. R. Company have provided excellent roadway approaches 
to the station, and laid out the adjacent ground in gra.ssy lawn and flowers, »S:c. 
Grass, shrubbery and flowers grow most admirably in this vicinity, and no finer 
lawns can be found than some of those here and at Sharon Hill, (xlenohieji,' 
Ridley Park and Crum Lynne. The land along here is a strata of clay and 
gravel, overlaid with sand and clay loam. 

A pretty, convenient cottage, can be put up at Norwooil for about !?;!,S0(». 
These cottages have all modern improvements and furnish ample accnnnnodii- 
tions for a family of six or seven j)ers()ns. If the grounds t'ost, say $HW for 
purchase and improvement, the annual rental of the i)roi)erty to the owner in 
interest, taxes, repairs and insurance, will easily come inside of $400. Fortius 
vearly outlay, a handsome, comfortable, desirable home can be secured amid 
the pleasantest and best surroundings for the mental, moral and physical well- 
being of the family. Every advantage pertaining to the city can be had in 
respect to good schools, church privileges, convenient nuirkets, social neighbor- 
hood, etc.; at the same time the ]ture, fresh air, the healthful out-door life, 
and the imnumity from danger of undesirable associates, peculiar to the 
country, are enjoyed. 

KAII. HOAD (illDK HOdK. 21 


Nine miles from Philadelphia is Moore's Station, at Prosfieet I'ark. Pros- 
pect Park was laid out in 1875, and is the projjerty of John C'oehran and the 
firm of John Shedwiek iS: Son. It contains (iOO lots, over SOO of which have 
been disposed of dnrinij; the past two years. The <i,ronnds have hei'n surveyed 
in streets and avenues, with a large park in tlie centre. Tlic properly lays he- 
tween the rail road and the Chester and harliy 'rurn]iike, and luiuL; in liuod 
hands, it is siiai'ing the ])rosperity and increase destined to Imild up all ihe su- 
burban towns on this rail road. ^Messrs. ('ocliran, Slicdwick iV Son lia\e, and 
ai'e still making the most of the advantages of Prosiiecl I'aik, and tluy prevcni 
the intrusion of anything that would detract from the same in the least. .Mr. 
(Jeo. W. Shirley, real estate agent, 17th and Soutii streets, PhiTa, is liie pionei'r 
of the j)lace, and came here at tiie time the jiark was firsl laid out. Tiie Imuse 
here illustrated is owned and occujiied by him, and shows the style and desisju 

];Ksri)F,xcE OP GEO. w. siiii:i,i:y. 

of many of tlie iionses in the ]iark. At the time of our visit \\\<, ijiree-story 
frame cottages were going ujiand olliers were to follow soon after. Allogelher, 
there are about twenty houses erected in the jiark. John ( 'raig, of liie printing 
firm of ('raig & Finley, ?n\ and .\rch streets, owns a cottage here, as do also 
George Eussell, Frederick Ilurly, Edward Smith, Sam'l Cross, David McClurg 


and J. Harrison. The farm liuildintis of ^Ir. James Trainer are located aljout 
lialf a mile west of the station. 

Throuf>h tlie enterprise of Mr. Shirley and one or two other gentlemen of 
Prospect Park, tliere has heen organized liere a tirst-elass bnilding association. 
The first series of the association was started in July, 1870, and the demand for 
shares was so great that it was deemed advisable to start a new series, and ac- 
cordingly a new series was started in Febrnary last, and a great many shares 
were taken at the first meeting. These associations are conducted by men of 
experience in building associations, and we know of no better or surer w^ay of 
investing money. The officers are E. T. Cade, President, George W. Shirley, 
Secretary, and W. Scott Burk, Treasurer. About the first of the current year a 
Cemetery company was organized, styled the " Prospect Park Cemetery Com- 
pany," which includes the grounds of an old Baptist Cemetery in the park. 
The depot, Moore's Station, is built of frame, and is two stories high, part of 
which is occupied as a residence by the station agent, Mrs. Dahman. The 
waiting rooms here are pictures of comfort and neatness. The business of the 
road is large and increasing. A number of local trains make their terminus at 
this i>oint, the turnouts, engine houses, etc., being erected here. There are four 
tracks laid l)etween this station and Norwood. Property can still l)e had in 
tins ]((cality at comparatively low figures, and money can be doubled on the ad- 
vance in real estate, if Prospect Park grows as rapidly the next eight or ten 
years as it lias for the corresponding jieriod since first laid out. 


Adjoining Prospect Park, on the south-west, is Ridley Park, the beautiful Gar- 
den City (mthis Road, nine and three-quarter miles from Philadelphia. When 
the new line of the Piiiladelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Rail Road was 
built, 500 acres of land were selected here for a landscape town, this being con- 
sidered the choicest location within the limits of convenient access to the city. 
The comi)any of capitalists owning the property is entitled the Ridley Park 
Association, and has for its President Samuel M. I'^lton, F,sq. The Associa- 
tion has expended upon the grounds, since its organization, a large amount of 
niDUt'v, wliich ii;is already been |)artly relurned by llie sale of lii(s, oi- rentals ol 
villas and collages of ilie Park. The plan of t\\r Park is admirable, and no ex- 
pense has been spared toward its ornamentation, grading, bnilding of cottages, 
constructing ai'tilieial lakes, streams, laistie seats, arbors, bridges, etc., aud in 
every manner developing liie jdac'e, while at liie same time the plan of tlu: 
town has not been marred in the least. The situation of the Park is high, giv- 
ing pleasant views in all directions. From almost any jxiint the eye is greeted 
with an endless variety of hills and valleys, copse and forest, cleft here and 
there with silver slreanis and shimmering lakes. Toward the east you can see 
the Delaware lleekt'd with sails, and far in the distance, on the Jersey si<le, you 
look along o\'er an extensive range of wood and meadow, while noi'tb and west- 
ward the bi'aiitii'ul country about Mt'diaand the city of Chester counnands your 

All who iiave had occasion to pass over the riiila(lei|tliia, Wilmington iV: 
Baltimore Rail Roa<l, art' ac(|nainted with the iiieturis(|ne scenery of Ridley 
Park. The natural beauties of the place have been adorned by [)rogressive 

i;aii, ijoap (aiDK huok. 

imju-ovi'iiient, (•(lusisionl with tlir lilicniiily mikI wise lnr<siL;lii <t\' ilic Associ.-i- 
tidii. Tlu' iirilU'ipli' ostiiMislu'ii lli;it wh.-ili'vcr \v;i>~ done here sliniild he 
wx'll ;m(l llmroiinlily ddiu', :mil :ih\M(ly ihc rlliciu y of iliis lutictdiirc is cxi'iii- 
pliliotl in tliL' value (iT iIk' IniiMini;- lots, \\\v licautiriil iirdiKH-iiiniof tlir ,i;niuii(ls, 

■^ttJ, ^?u^., ::,.v 


and ilic nniui.'rons walks ami spli'iidid drives in which its area almunds. Thf 
Assiirialioii has planted an immense nnndierimd n'reaf varii.-Iv (if trees, drained 
and iiiijiroved the entire tract, and sn]ii)!ieil artificial \v;iler wcirks. The rciads, 
avenues and side-walks are wide, lliorou.iihly well ((instructed, and shaded with 
trees. The streams have lieen exjianded intu lovely lakes, with wide inarpjins 
of beaiitifnl sliore, the e<nnninn propeitv ut' all residents. A )iark nl' .ilidut 
twenty acres, and ;i cemetery of" fifteen acres have hecn laid out in tiie must 
tasteful manner. 

The Association are putting aside a certain ])ereentaL::e from sales to create a 
permanent fund for preserving~and adding to the heauties of the phice. TIiIn 
fund can never be used for tlie introihiction of water or gas, oi- to reduce taxt's, 
but must ever remain tlie projierty of tlie landholders, to insure thi' mainte- 
nance of roads, to provide for care of public jiroperty, and to guarantee the jiros- 
ecution of further improvements. 

Nothing in the plan of Ridley Park has been left to chance. The sites se- 
lected for the town hall, the hotel, for churches, schools, stores, linnber and coal 
yards, etc., are those most appropriate and best suited to meet special re(iuire- 



nient. All tiiese points are connected with each other, and with the stations by 
roads adapted to the shape of the grounds, following the natural and easiest 
grades. These ways, and the groves, lakes, park, and connnon grounds are ar- 
ranged in most beautiful sequence, leaving sites for fine houses in the manner 
of pedestals for statues, and shading with discreet veils the more utilitarian and 
prosaic features of the scene. One of the principal features of attraction in sum- 
mer is Ridley Park Lake, an artificial body of water covering an area of about 
three acres, and as seen in tiie picture, is in entire sympathy with the sweet se- 


elusion of the natural beauty which dwells around it. There is a boat house 
on this side, and on the otlier side is the bridge over Crum Lynne Falls, at the 
point where the lake empties itself into Crum creek. 

There is no more beautiful rail road depot in the world than that at Ridley 
Park. It is erected in tiie most ornate style, and is 2)articularly noticeable for 
novelty of design as well as for architectural beauty. It is built on iron arches, 
spanning the rail road tracks, and forms a shelter for the platforms of the sta- 
tion ; and on either side there are covered stairways of graceful api)earance 
leading from the level of the track to that of the ground above. The interior 
of the depot is finished in natural woods, with fioors and ceilings of manpietry. 
The decorations, though simi)le, are original and very eflective. The plan of 
tlie rooms is also peculiar, and, while a(U)r(ling t'very convenient'c, is so ar- 
ranged as to give a most charming suite of apartments. They are models of 
comfort and neatness, and in the warmest days of smnnier are cool and pleas- 
ant. The social exciiange intbrmally Iield here during a summer morning, 
while passengers are assembling for the fre((uent trains, is cme of the pleasant 
features of suburban life. It will be observed tiiat the rail road, track at the 
depot here is sunk below the level of the surrounding country, hiding the trains 
entirely from view. This is eflected by a cutting in the hill which extends 
through the park at an average depth of 14 feet. The banks of this cutting are 
terraced and covered with sod, so that the line of the rail road is here i)artly 
hidden and partly so beautified as to become an added attraction of the land- 



Ridley Park Hotel is the property of the association, and it is kept in the 
very best manner by experienced j^arties employed for that [niritose. As 
will be seen by a cut of the hotel, on page 25, it is a large three-story brick 
building, with basement, and spacious piazza on three sides, afibrding a tine 
view of the Delaware river and the surroundings of Ridley Park. The high 
basement is devoted more especially to the culinary department. The first 
floor contains the parlors, dining rooms, gentlemen's smoking room and nuisic 
room. There are about fifty cbambers, and the hotel affords accommodations 
for over one hundred guests. It is supplied throughout with water and gas, and 
its excellent rooms, its broad piazzas, and its situation in the midst of a charm- 
ing neighborhood, make it a very desirable transient home for the summer. 
The close proximity of Ridley Park to one of the finest markets in the world, 
insures to the guests of this hotel a fore that cannot be surpassed. The cuisine 
is presided over by the best cooks, and every dish served up in the most tasteful 
style. Though conducted on the principle of a large hotel, yet there is an air 
of refinement about the premises, and a smooth order in the whole management, 
which relieves it of that noisy parade and vulgar clamor which seems to be the 
very best atmosphere of many of the large hotels at Saratoga and Long Branch. 
In truth the hotel at Ridley Park partakes of that air of graceful dignity with 
which the loveliness of nature and the refined character of its lady guests sur- 
round it. It is strictly a summer resort, kept open only during the summer 
months, and, as a general thing, is well patronized. The tired, over-worked 
business man of the city, here finds the recuperation that his over-strained en- 
ergies require. As each pufF of the locomotive takes him farther and farther 
away from ledger, yard-stick, bt)nds, counting-room and warehouse, the load of 
cares gradually leaves him, and by the time Ridley Park is reached, the mel- 
ody of singing birds and rustling leaves, the poetry of sighing breezes and mur- 
muring brooks, have been so thoroughly mixed up with sterner nuvnhood, that 
he almost fancies that he is in some new-found paradise. With the morning 
train he goes back, feeling refreshed and invigorated, and better prepared to 
battle in the busy tide of business affairs. Their wives and children are also 
benefited by the summer's sojourn — the one receiving the necessary rest from a 
giddv winter's season of fashion and frivolity, the other the relaxation from 
study at school and college. The society which gathers here every season is of 
a character of which any establishment may be proud, as it em])races tlie very 
best families in Philadelphia. Being only nine miles from the city, tuid con- 
nected with it l)y eighteen trains daily, renders the Ridley Park Hotel very ac- 
cessible. There are four express trains which make the trip in less than twenty 
minutes. Tlie fore for the season is low-; so that with these conveniences, a gen- 
tleman can live at Ridley Park witli his foniily, and attend to his ordinary bus- 
iness in Philadelphia with the greatest ease. Himself and foniily are thus re- 
lieved of the cares of housekeeiiing, and the young members of tlic household 
can romj) and g'row fat. 

It would occui)y a great many i)agesof this book todescril)e all the liandsome 
and ornate mansions and cottages in Ridley Park. The largest and mosti)n)m- 
inent houses in the Park are as follows: P.. H. Bartol, sugar refiner; Major 
David Nevin, in business in Philadelphia ; Doctor Mellinger owns a fine three- 
story frame cottage near the hotel ; Wm. Sellers, of the large tool firm of Wni. 

HAII. KOAD (iriDK I'.DOK. 27 

Sellei-s & Co., owms a Iiandsome residence on Swarthniore avenno. Tlie resi- 
dences of T. P. Chandler, H. F. Kenney, .). H. .lones and S. T. Fnller. are es- 
pecially attractive, and are principally hiiilt at'lrr tlic style n\' anliitcctiire of 
the one illustrated above. Mr. C. Tartar also lives lirrc in a line lesidcnce. .V 
general store, well stocked, and tlie post office are kept liy Mrs. A. ('. Wise, 
wliicli name is not by any means inapprojiriate. There are two churciies in 
Ridley i)ark — a Presbyterian and Baptist. Tiie I*resl)yterian church is e,<5- 
pecially a beautiful place of worship — the sublime efiect of its <;rav stone walls 


and turret spire holding the attention of the most indiflerent. .\nother imjior- 
tant feature of Ridley Park is its conservatories and green houses belonging to 
the Association, where all the flowers, plants, shrubs and young trees are pro- 
))agated for decorating the Park. The Association have an f)ffice on the 
grounds, where business is transacted. There is also a dwelling attached in 
which the superintendent of the grounds resides. This last lucniioiu-d gmtlc- 
man is Mr. E. M. 8mith, who is deserving of great credit fm- (he admirabli' 
manner in which he lias reared and kept this beautiful garden cily. Kvery 
stranger who visits Ridley Pai'k in summer time is struck witii flic beauty and 
grandeur of the place, and on his departure cai'ries away with him pleasant 
recollections of its loveliest breezes, its beautiful shade trees, its excellent water, 
and last, but not least, the impression of its pleasant and agreeable inhabitants. 


This station is located at the south-east end of the Park, and is a great con- 
venience to those who reside in the vicinity. The depot here is remarkable 
for the beautiful sculpture of the cai)itals of pilasters to the archives of the 
windows, the architect, J. P. Chandler, .Jr., lia\iug designed each one for this 
building, using the flowers and iVuits, and the biids and animals of this i-egion 
for his (ii-namental work, instead of the usual cornice and frie/c of ( Irecian 



urcliitcotme. Situated on an eminence, and overlooking tlie station liere, is the 
beautiful residence and grounds of Mr. S. T. Fuller. This is indeed one of the 
finest residences in the Park. The site rises from the road to a knoll in the 
center of the lot upon which the villa stands, and then falls away on all sides. 
It is three stories high, and has a large and commanding observatory, from 
which an unobstructed view can be had of the surrounding country. The rooms 
are all neatly finished, and mostly face toward the south and east. The second 
and third stories are well supplied with light, airy chambers, and the liouse 
will compare favorably with the most ornate villas at Newport or Saratoga. 



Mr. Fuller also has a stable the same style as the house. Its dimensions are 
45 by 50 feet, two stories high, and it is finished off" with a cupalo and vane. It 
has four large stalls, and, like the house, is supplied with copper lightning rods. 
Tiie grounds ai-e surrounded by a rustic fence, constructed entirely of ce<lar. 

7\dj()ining tlie villa of Mr. Fuller, and just out of the Park, is the three- 
storied residence of Mr. William W. Maddock, who owns a farm here of about 
one hundi-ed acres. vVcross the road, on a high i)iece of ground, are the dwell- 
ings of .Jose])li Ward, .Ir., and Abraham Wai'd, bnithers, who are associated 
near here in the (piarry business. Their father resides only a few hundred feet 
from their residences, and slili lives on tlie old homestead i)roperty, containing 
about eighty acres of the most improved land. 

A cou])le of miles to the n((rtli-west, at the head of ('rum Lynne, (which 
spreads itself into the ])rincipal lake of Kidley Park,) is situated Swarthmore 
College, an establishment which, to look at, is the Tuileries Palace restored from 
its burning, and which, when youenter it, proves to be a highly curious ex})er- 
inient of bi-sexnal education, conducted by the llicksite branch of the Society 
of Friends. It acconiniodates four liundri'd pupils, boys and girls, clambering 
the hill of scit'ucc liaiid in hand. Thert' are many other interesting localities 
in the neighborhood, old farm houses still retaining last century simjdic'ity, the 


sites of old forts, teeming witli liistorie ussooiations, the birtli places of men 
grown to world-wide fame, and many a spot noted as the seat of Indian and 
Revolutionary traditions, celebrated in song and story. 


Eddystone station is in the suburbs of Chester city, eleven and three-quarter 
miles from PhiladoIi)liia. The place takes its name from the trade mark of 
Messrs. Simpson & Sons' popular print, the far-famed Eddystone light-house. 
The new and extensive print works of tliu Messrs. Simjjson are erected nearby, 
and a thriving neighl)orlioo(l is growing up around them. A descriittive sketcli 
and history of these interesting works is given in this book, under the head of 
the " Industries of Chester." 

The station building here has been recently erected, and is worth a moment's 
attention for its truthful and faultless style of architecture. Tlie interior wood- 
work and the furniture are grained and polished in imitation of walnut, and 
present a lieautiful appearance. Although, as stated, Eddystone is a suburb of 
Chester, yet there is enough of wood and open fields to give the place a rural 
look. To the right of the station is a quiet grove of fidl-grown trees of almost 
every variety ; and farther back are o\d farm houses, barns and country home- 
steads, establislied more than a century ago. Before reaching this station, the 
rail road crosses Crum Creek over a beautiful iron bridge, at a height of about 
forty-five feet. Three miles above, on this stream, are the ancient Wallingford 
Cotton Mills and Dye Works, the property of Mr. Mordecai Lewis, in whose 
family these venerable works have existed for more than a hundred years. 
Half a mile higher up, on the same stream, is the establishment of Mr. How- 
ard Lewis, for the manufacture of printing paper. After leaving Eddystone 
station, the train immediately passes over Ridley Creek. The bridge here is 
also of iron ; is long and high, and perfectly substantial. There are, likewise, 
on this stream, manufocturing establishments of historic note, whose origin 
dates back previous to the year 1800. Four streams are crossed by the P. W. 
& B. R. R., and enter the Delaware river within two miles of each other, be- 
tween Darby and Chester. They are called Chester Creek, Ridley Creek, Crum 
Creek, and Darby Creek. These creeks furnish the numerous manufacturing 
establishments, dotted along their banks, with inexhaustible power. Tiieir sil- 
very waters, on the way to the Delaware, wind through over-shadowing hills, 
now meeting with some apparently impenetrable barrier, or now darting oti' ob- 
liquely, to seek the passage-way cleft for them through rocky battlements, by 
some gigantic convulsion of the past. Here, in the torrid daysof summer, when 
city ff)lks swelter and inwardly long for the wings of a bird, that they may fly 
away and beat rest, are cool, delicious spots, free from the turmoil of the city, 
but near enough to enjoy the advantages and conveniences. of the same, daily. 

It is asserted that the cotton and fibres from half the states in the Union 
are woven into tissues by the mills on the banks of these four creeks. Up on 
Chester creek still stands the " Ivy Mills," which was the pioneer of paper 
manufacture on tlie western continent. Near tiie same jilace are tlie Wilcox 
Mills, where the peculiar paper now used by the Treasury Department for the 
United States Currency, is nuxde. The Messrs. Wilcox also nuike most of the 
music paper used in the L'^nited States. Further down the stream, at tilen Rid- 


die, are located the large cotton and woolen mills of Mr. Samuel Riddle, one of 
Delaware county's wealthiest citizens. Besides the large mills, he also owns 
here 243 acres of improved land. It was near Glen Riddle, at a place now- 
called Crozierville, where Mr. John P. Crozier established his colossal fortune 
by the alteration of old historic paper and grist mills, into woolen and cotton 
factories, and died here in 1866, full of honors, leaving a savor of good works 
behind him to perfume liis memory, besides the enormous business interests 
confided to his sons. 


Chester, fourteen miles from Philadelphia, is the oldest city in Pennsylvania. 
The first settlers called tlie place Upland, a name which it bore until Penn gave 
it the present one in 1682. The date of its first settlement is unknown, but in 
1668 it had become the chief town of the Upper Delaware Settlements, and the 
place where the courts were held. In 1682, Penn took formal possession of his 
new colony of Pennsylvania, and established his government at Chester, where 
it remained a year or two, when the newer city of Philadelphia robbed it of its 
honor. Until outstripped by Philadeliihia, Chester fully expected to be the 
connnercial metropolis of the State. 

In 1776 the population of Chester was probably about four hundred, and it is 
doubtful whether the number of inhabitants increased at all between 1776 and 
1827. At the latter date, the whole number of buildings in the town was but 
seventy, including barns, stables and shops. Between 1830 and 1840, the Phila- 
delphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Rail Road was built, passing through Ches- 
ter, and extensive stone quarries were opened in the vicinity, furnishing large 
quantities of stone to the Delaware Breakwater. These enterprises gave an im- 
petus to the town, which, in 1840, increased its number of buildings to two hun- 
dred and twenty-four, and its population to something over seven hundred. 

In 1850 quite a change had taken place. The seat of justice had been re- 
moved to Media, manufacturers had discovered the convenience of the town to 
the sources of the materials they needed, as well as to the markets for their 
products, and even the old residents had begun to think that the Delaware 
might furnish some material good besides fish. The census returns gave the 
number of inliabitants as 1667, and those of 1860 as 4631. In 1866 the Bor- 
ough became a city by act of Legislature, and in 1870 the number of inhabi- 
tants was 9485. There has been a similar increase since 1870, and the present 
population is over 15,000. The wealth and all the material interests of the 
town have increased in like jtroportion. Manufactories of cotton, wtuil and iron 
have sprung up all over the place, and no town of its size in the State exceeds 
it in industry and enterprise. The industrial establishments here, comprise 
twenty-live cotton and woolen mills, ibur ship yards, six machine shops, two 
steel works, one rolling mill, four planing mills, three carriage factories, one 
brass foundry, an axe factory, and a sugar refinery. Tiie result of establishing 
these places of productive industry is, tliat an entire new population lias taken 
possession of the city of Chester, building u[t its vacant lots, and extending the 
town beyond its incorporated limits on all sides, except wliere the Delaware in- 
terjioses to prevent it. ]\lany of these incomers are from tlie country, seeking 
faster modes of becoming ricli tlian iMiltivatingtbe soil. Many come from otiier 

■RAIl'; K()\l> (;riI)E ROOK. ol 

States, and very many froni foreign emintrii's. As it is tiie energetic who emi- 
grate, these j)eoi>le bronglit with them more tiiaii the average energy ot' thr pla- 
ces from whicli tiiey came, and tlieir advent into Cliester was very nnuli like 
that of tlie Pjiropean settlers among the ahorigines. 

There are now about tiiree thonsand dwelling honses, most of them occupied, 
and in a great many instances owned hy working men. Tliere are upwards of 
twenty Bnihiing Associations in Cliester, and thnuigh their operations, liiindreds 
of laboring men, and others of small means, who othi'i-wise would not have 
saved a dollar, are now living in their own comfortable iiomes. In the iiands 
of conscientious men, these institiuions are a blessing to j)eople of small re- 
sources, but they are liable to abuse by harsh, hard and unscrupulous mana- 

The peoiiie of Chester are essentially a newspaper reading connuunily. 
Tiiere are two daily and five weekly papers published here. The daily imbli- 
cations are the Krm'niii Ncvtf and Ddihj TiiiirK. Tliose published weekly are the 
Drhtirctrr Coil nil/ h'tpiililiriiii, ihv Drinormt diirl Pilol, {\\l' Weekly Mail, the Ad- 
ri)C(Uc, and T/ir Puprr. A sketch and history of the Iklamire County Republiran, 
the oldest i)aper in the county, is given in this work, under the head of "Ches- 
ter Industries, &c." 

Chester is plentifully sni>plicd with jilaces of religious worshi}). It has one 
Baptist, three Presbyterian, tw(j Ei)iscopaI, three Methodist, and one Roman 
Catliolic Church. It has two incorporated l)anks, the Delaware County Na- 
tional Bank, and the First Naticmal Bank of Chester. It also contains two pri- 
vate banking houses. Other buildings of a public character are the City Hall, 
National Hall, Tuscarora Hall, and Holly Tree Inn. This latter structure is 
new, and has been erected by a benevolent society. The upper floor is one of 
the largest and finest halls in Chester, while the lower floor is devoted to the 
use of a coffee house. The public schools of Chester have a high rejmtation 
for thoroughness and efficiency. The l)est military school in the country is lo- 
cated on an eminence a short distance from the town, as is also Crozier's Theo- 
logical Seminary, a benevolent institution endowed l)y the late John P. Crozier. 
Illustrations and sketches of these noble institutions of learning are given in 
another part of the book. 

The history of Chester during the last century is a remarkable one. After a 
state of almost complete inertness for sixty-five years, it increases from seven 
hundred to fifteen thousand in the remaining thirty-five years. This has been 
attributed, to some extent, to the removal oi the seat of justice from the place, 
but the great cause was the discovery of the local advantages of Chester for 
manufsictories. Philadelphia was becoming a great manufacturing city, and it 
was natural that the high rents and expensive living of that city should 
direct the attention of producers to neighboring towns. Chester is u]iou tide 
water, about as convenient to coal, iron and other materials, as Philadelphia, 
and much more accessible to the outside world, being at the head ol' winter 
navigation in severe seasons, and being the point to which vessels, bound up- 
wards, usually come without towing. 

As a shipi)ing }>ort, Chester has never been of much importance, but as ;i 
point for ship building and repairs the city holds a pn^ninent position, and has 
within her borders the largest ship-building establishment on the Western Con- 


tinent. Those who read tlie descriptive articles of Chester's prominent fac- 
tories, mills, machine shops, institutions of learning, and hnsiness houses in the 
following pages, will be able to form some idea of who the enterprising men of 
the city are, who have built it up to its present prosperous and flourishing con- 


Sketches of the Leading Manufactories, Ship-yards, Machine 
Shops, Business Houses, Hotels, and Institu- 
tions of Learning. 


All who have passed over the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Rail 
Road, are familiar with the location of this institution in Chester. The aca- 
demy buildings are situated on an elevation, and withhold and striking style of 
architecture, remind one of some of the stately buildings in continental p]urope. 
They can be seen from a long distance, and their beauty is admired l>y the so- 
journing stranger and passer-by, and they are the pride and admiration of the 
people of Chester and vicinity. 

The Pennsylvania Military Academy was chartered witli university powers 
in the year 1862, and was first opened in West Chester, at that time. In 1866 
it was moved to Chester, and the building referred to, with grounds and outfit, 
erected at a cost of 1100,000. The buildings being on elevated ground, com- 
mand an extensive view of the Delaware river and the surrounding country. 
The grounds are twenty-five acres in extent, a portion of which is tastefullv 
laid out and decorated with ornamental trees and a variety of evergreens, and 
forms one of the naost attractive s|)ots in the environs of Chester. Having been 
erected expressly for the Academy, the buildings are strictly adapted to its 
needs, and are unsurpassed by those of any school in the country. The main 
structure is two hundred and seventeen feet long, fifty feet deep, and four stories 
high, designed for the accommodation of one hundred and fifty cadets, with the 
staff officers requisite for their government. The private rooms, intended for 
the occupancy, each, of two cadets, are sui^plied with gas, heated by steam ujjon 
the most improved plan, and well ventilated. The bath-room is furnished with 
sixteen full-sized bath-tubs, and supplied with hot and cold water ; and the 
handsome audience chamber, forty-four by sixty-four feet, is well arranged for 
the general exercises of the corps. An abundance of the purest spring water 
may be obtained upon every corridor of the Academy, from tanks having a ca- 
pacity of about eight thousand gallons. The drill room, with gymnasium at- 
tached, one hundred feet long, sixty feet wide, and twenty-five feet high, fur- 
nishes the cadet with uiuisual advantages for in-door exercises. A fine skating 
park, covering about two acres, is upon the grounds of the Academy. 

The design of the P. M. A. is to unite with moral and mental education, a 
thorough course of military training, both theoretical and practical. The mili- 
tary dejiartment is conducted with an efficiency second to that of no other insti- 
tution of the kind in the country. It is, in all respects, calculated to develop 
the ]>hysical powers, and cultivate order among the cadets. The departments 
of study embrace a thorough course of all English brnnches, collegiate and pre- 
paratory courses, together with thorough courses in civil and mining engineer- 



intj. Tlie lirealost tli()r()ii,ij;linoss is cxacttMl in all iinniclu's of study, and no 
cadet is allowed to j^i-aduate except after tiiorouuli examination in all the 
hranehes of study in liis respective classes. 

Tiie Academy is supplied hy the State of Pennsylvania with a hattery of six 
irtins, and Iiv the United States ( Jovernnient with the Springfield rifle, of tlic 
Reniin,e:ton i)attern. The Fnited vStates flovernment has, for many years, de- 
tailed at the Academy an oflicer of the regnlar army to aid in the military de- 
partment, r.ieiileiian' < '. H. Harnett, of the Fifth Artillery, is at present as- 
signed to diilv here. Tliis institution resemhles, in its ciuirse of study and .i;en- 


eral regulations, the United States Military Academy, and it oflers similar ad- 
vantages with that institution to the nuiltitude of those who cannot gain admis- 
sion for their sons at West Point. The graduates are thorough scholars, and 
generally emerge from their school life in rol)ust health and fine si)eeimens of 
manly vigor. 

The President of the Academy is Colonel Theodore Hyatt, to whom undoubt- 
edly the institution owes the great reputation and success it has secured 
throughout the United States. Col. Hyatt is also Professor of Mathematics and 
Instructor in Tactics, and his assistants, both on the academic and military 
staffs, are instructors of the highest reputation in their special departments. 
The academic staff' contains two graduates, and the militarv staff' one graduate 
of the United States Militarv Academy. The trustees of the institution einl)race 
some of the most prominent men of Pennsylvania, among whom may be men- 
tioned Hon. James Pollock, President; Rev. Dr. Newton, Rt. Rev. Win. B. 
Stevens, I). D., LL. D., Rev. Matthew Sinijison, I). D., Hon. Wavne Mac- 
Veagh, Hon. John M. Broomall, Hon. Wm. B. Waddell, Rev. Wm. B. Breed, 



D. D., Rev. Henry C. Westwood, D. D., Major General S. W. Crawford, Hon. 
Charles O'Niel, T. B. Peterson, Esq., James L. Claghorn, Esq., S. M. Eelton, 
Esq., Samuel A. Crozier, Esq. The committees of the educational and military 
department comprise a number of professional gentlemen of the highest char- 
acter in the department of law, divinity, and military life. Before these dis- 
tinguished and scholarly persons, the }>rogrt'ss of the students here is regularly 
inquired into, and that Col. Hyatt has uniformly received their highest com- 
mendation, should be a matter of great gratification to him, as it is a signifi- 
cant conunent upon the marked success of his efforts of the academic staff. A 
regular report is made at the end of each scholastic year to the Governor of the 
State, of the names of the six cadets who stand highest on the roll of the Aca- 
demy for scholarship, conduct, and military exercises, with the specific brandies 
in which thev excelled. This is in accordance with the requirements of the 
charter granted to the Academy by the State. A fair idea may be gained of the 
daily life of the cadets, by the following table of the employment of time : 

From 6.00 to 6.15 A. M., Reveille. 

6.30 to 7.15 " Studv. 

7.15 " Breakfast. 

8.00 " Guard INIoiuiting. 

8.15 " Squad Drill. 

8.45 " Surgeon's Call. 

0.00 A. M. to 12.15 P.M., Studv and Recitations. 

1.00 " Dinner. 

2.00 to 4.00 " Study and Recitations. 

4.30 to 5.30 " Drill and Dress Parade. 

6.00 " Supper. 

7.00 to 9.00 " Study. 

9.00 to 9.10 " Tattoo. 

9.20 " Taps. 

From this it will be seen thatentire regularity, exactness and pronqititude are 
required from each student. He must be at his post as a soldier, and must per- 
form his duties with fidelity. These habits are of the greatest value, and the 
lack of them is the occasion of half the l)usiness failures of life. Resident 
cadets only are received, and these generally number about one hundred and 
thirty. They are the sons of prominent business and professional men in 
diflerent jaarts of the Union, though the majority come from this State. The 
cadets are uniformed in a handsome and tasteful gray, and their ap])earance, 
when on dress parade, is very striking and soldier-like. 

There is nothing left undone that will in any manner contribute to the com- 
fort and welfare of the cadets. It would Ije hard to find a school where there 
has been less trouble between teacher and tauglit. Those cadets who have been 
at the Academy longest, look on the place as their home, and seem glad to get 
back after the vacations are over. On graduating, it is with regret that many 
of the cadets leave the Academy, and they always cling to their alma niafrr 
with affectionate regard. The very best fare is given the cadets. The table is 
provided with everything in season, and plenty of it, and fails to realize the 
popular idea of boarding school fare, so free does it seem from that wearisome 
sameness which goes so far to disgust the youth of both sexes with lioarding 
school memories. Considering the advantages of the institution, the charges 
for board, tuition, &c., are reasonable, the particulars of which can be obtained 
by addressing the President. The Academy bears a very high and iiou()rai)le 
reputation, and is widely known to be one of the best conducte<l military schools 
in the country. The literary attainments and culture of the President and in- 
structors of the Academy, and the care and solicitU(K' whicli they t'vince in im- 
parting instruction, and regulating the mental, moral, and ])hysical training of 
those entrusted to their charge, has gained for them the highest respect, and 
won for the institution the hearty confidence of those best ac(piainted with its 

Colonel Hyatt is an able instructor, and a uolile, high-minded christian gen- 


tlenian, to whom parents may satVly conliik' tlu' education and trainintj of tlu'ir 
sons. He has devoted a hirf^e sliare of liis life to tlie >;reat ohject of echicatint; 
voung men, in whirh work lie has met witii that gratifying success and reward 
"his efforts iiave so justly deserved. Me has been President of the Academy 
ever since it was tirst estahlished in 18(32, and he is therefore widely known, 
and is deserving of still wider recognition, as heing the liead and iirojcclor of 
the most successful institutit)U of its class in America. 


The mills of Messrs. A. Blakeley & Sons, known as the "Araspha jNIills," 
were tirst established in Chester by Mr. A. Blakeley, the present senior partner, 
in the year 1854. This is one of the largest cotton manufactories in Chester, 
the grounds upon which the difierent buildings are located, covering a wlu)le 
square, extending from Tenth to Eleventh streets on Walnut street. The main 
building, built of brick, is 200 feet h)ng by 50 feet wide, and three stories high. 
There is also an engine room 40 by 25 feet, a picker room 50 by 30 feet, dyeing 
and hnishing room 100 by 30 feet. These buildings are of brick, and built in 
the most substantial manner. The machinery in the mill includes 158 
looms, (50 of which have been added during April and May of the current 
year, ) 6000 spindles, together with all the necessary appliances, and an engine 
of one hundred and fifty horse-power. When in full operation over one 
hundred hands are employed. 

The products of the "Araspha Mills" endjrace all kinds of cotton goods in 
every variety of style, weight and price, which, being used for clothing by the 
masses of the people, find a ready sale. This necessitates a large consumption 
of raw material, amounting to about 1200 bales of cotton in a single year. The 
firm sell their goods through Meigs, Dale & Co., of Philadelphia and New- 
York, and their trade thus covers every part of the country. A\"hen Mr. 
Abraham Blakeley first took charge of these mills the mill building was only 
half its present size, but in 1873 the business compelled an enlargement of the 
factory, and it was increased to just double its former capacity, by the addition of 
another one hundred feet. Mr. Blakeley has also associated two sons with him 
in the business. The oldest son, Benjamin W. Blakeley, was admitted to 
the business in the year 1862, and W. S. Blakeley, the younger son, was ad- 
mitted January 1st, 1874, shortly after the mills were enlarged. The senior 
partner is truly a self-made man, and commenced business with comparatively 
little capital. He has been connected in some way with the manufacture of 
cotton goods since boyhood. Since first starting in business for himself in 1854, 
he has shown great energy and ability in the conduct of his important enter- 
prise, and has established an enviable name both for himself and the i)rnducts 
of his mills. 


One of the leading mercantile houses of Chester, is that of Messrs. Hudson, 
Sparks & Co., located at the soutli-east corner of Sixth and Welsh streets, deal- 
ers in iron, steel, coach hardware, paints, oils, turpentine, varnishes, brushes, 
&c. This establishment, although recently startetl, has supplied a want long 
felt in Chester, and the trade of the house is increasing rai)idly. The indi- 
vidual partners of the establishment are Mr. J. K. Hudson and Mr. E. I). 
Sparks. The business was first estalilished in 1875, by ^Messrs. Branin tS: Hud- 
son, who carried it on successfully until October 1st, 1876, when Mr. Sjiarks 
was admitted to the )iartnershii>, and the firm assumed its ])resent style. The 
building occupied, is a neat brick structure, two stories in height, every part 
of which is used for carrying on tlie business. Tlie articles kept for sale at tlie 
establishment embraces everything needed in a carriage nnund'actory or black- 
smith shop. The stock is very extensive, and the prices of the articles will 
compare favorably with those of houses in the large cities. The wood stock is 
of extra (piality, and is guaranteed to be jierfectly dry. The store is well ar- 
ranged and conveniently fitted up. The trade of the house is already (jnite 


large, and extends throughout Dehiware and Chester Counties, and to Dela- 
ware State. Blacksmiths are supplied at short notice with all kinds of tools 
and iron needed in the prosecution of their business. Tiie firm also keep on 
hand paints, oils and varnishes, which they sell to manufacturers and painters, 
at the lowest market prices. Their stock in this department is fresh, and every 
article sold is warranted to be exactly as represented. The stock is selected 
with the utmost care, the aim of the firm being to keep only genuine and pure 
articles, so that every purchase made by a customer secures a permanent pa- 
tron of the house. By this course they have secured a good trade in the paint 
and oil department. 

Both members of the establishment, Messrs. Hudson & Sparks, are practi- 
cally and thoroughly familiar with every point and detail of their business, 
and all orders entrusted to their care are executed under their jtersonal su])er- 
vision. Tliey are likewise young men of sterling integrity and strict business 
qualifications, and are exceedingly popular in the community in which they 


The business was founded by Messrs. Miller & Allen in 18G0, in a very mod- 
erate way, and increased from time to time until 1872, when the present pro- 
prietors, Messrs. Robert Wetherill & Co., came into possession of the premises. 
Under the superior skill and judicious management of this firm the capacity of 
the works have been more than doubled since coming into their possession, 
until they are now, in completeness and efficiency, without an equal in tliis 
part of Pennsylvania. The extensive improvements to the works were made 
in 1874, which now consist of machine shop 50 by 143 feet in size, a foundry 
67 by 122 feet, boiler shop 36 by 102 feet; then there is the i)attern siiop, 
where the firm make all their own patterns, occupying the second story of the 
machine shop, and the moulding floor occupying the second story of the 
foundry. These buildings are all built of brick, and constructed in the most 
substantial manner. They occupy a whole square, 184 by 384 feet, extending 
from Sixth to Seventh street, and from Upland to Pine street. 

The class of work turned out at the establishment embraces engines, boilers, 
shafting, mill gearing, hoisting machinery, patent artificial ice machines, &c., 
but their great specialty is the manufacture of the Corliss steam engines, of 
which they have made the best and most powerful ones in use. The many im- 
jirovements they added make it superior. At the Centennial Exhibition last 
year, they received a gold medal for their exhibit of a Corliss engine, and also 
for " Wetherill's patent Self-packing Piston." The nundjer of Corliss engines 
made at these works exceed a hundred annually, and are sent to nearly all 
parts of the United States and to foreign countries. They are acknowletlged 
by the most competent judges, to be the best engine in use. They are so well 
known that a descrii)tion of them would be superfluous here. The self-packing 
piston invented by tiiis firm, and ])atented July 14, 1874, is fast gaining favor 
witli manufiicturers in Cliester, Wilmington, Pliiladelpliia, and in other hicali- 
ties. The Messrs. Wetherill have applied it to all engines of their own manu- 
facture for the ])ast four years; and have also applied it to engines of otiier 
makes, and it has given universal satisfaction in every case. It is undoubtetlly 
the very best packing in use, and it is fast superceding other makes in engines 
of all kinds. Another specialty of the firm is " \Vetheriirs Feed Water 
Heater," patented by them February 9, 1875. It consists of a wrought iron 
cylinder riveted to (!ast iron rings, and closed at the ends by cast iron bonnets, 
the latter being easily removed. The feed water is heated by pnssing it 
through nunu'vous c(tils ol' coj^ier jfipes, one inili in diiimeti'r, terminating in 
brass connection for inlet and outlet, (surrounded by the exhaust steam from 
the engine,) dividing it into small bodies, and causing it to reacli the boiler at 
a temperature of 21 2 degrees Farenheit. 

The proprietors of the works are men of experience, fully versed in all tlie 
details of the business, and they have each department of the business under 


the charge of a com])etent foreman. Besides the iiiannfaetures already men- 
tioned, tliev make liydraulie and screw i)resses, direct actinj;- and <>eari'(1 hoik-r 
ieeders, cranes, and boiler and tank work in all its liranches. Castings are 
made as high as thirty tons weight, and the tirm are prepared at all times to 
furnish the heaviest macliinery in all its details, for which jjlans and estimates 
are at all times cheerfully furnished. Altogether the Messrs. Wetherill t^ Co., 
emj)loy from ninety to one hundred hands, most of whom are com])etent and 
skilled mechanics. The power of the works is entirely steam, being I'urnislied 
by an eighty iiorse-power engine. The members of the firm are llobert AVeth- 
erill and Kit'hard \Vetherill, l)oth comparitively young in years, but old in vx- 
perience, and full of i)luck and enteri)rise. Mr. Robert \Vetlierill manages the 
practical part of tiie business, while the counting-house duties of the establish- 
ment are under the charge of the junior mendjer of the Hrm, Mr. Kicluird 


The business carried on by this popular tirm of Real Estate brokers in Ches- 
ter, was established by the father of the present proprietors, Mr. John Cochran, 
about the year 185S, nineteen years ago. Mr. Cochran was very successful, an<l 
in the year 1874 he admitted as partners to his business, iiis sons .]. Kngle and 
S. J. Cochran, and the style of the tirm became Joini Cochran tt Sf)ns. I5oth 
the sons received a liberal education, and Mr. 8. J. Cociiran had learned civil 
engineering and practiced it to some extent before being admittecl to the busi- 
ness. With this fresh ability and energy, the tirm largely increased and ex- 
tended its operations, and at the present time the firm of Cochran Brothers 
takes front rank among the establishments devoted to real estate operations in 
Delaware county. The tirm assumed its present style in December, 1876, by 
Mr. John Cochran, the founder of the house, withdrawing, and establishing a 
new l)usiness at 704 Walnut street, I^hiladel})hia. For the last twenty years 
Mr. John Cochran, and the tirm of John Cochran <fc Sons, have transacted a 
large share of the immense real estate business of Delaware county and the 
surrounding country, enjoying the confidence of capitalists and investors, as 
well as of builders and real estate operators. In the purchase and sale of all 
classes of dwellings, business establishments, industrial works, building lots, 
landed estates, suburban villas and cottages, shops, stores, mills, etc., the skill 
and experience of the tirm have been found extremely useful to both buyers and 
sellers, and the integrity of the house has proven a safe reliance to both sides, 
in all transactions entrusted to its management. 

Beside the buying, selling, and exchanging of real estate, the Messrs. Coch- 
ran invest money on Ijond and mortgage, on the most aiii)roved security. In- 
surance is also phiced to any amount in the most reliable companies in the Ke- 

A large business is done by the Messre. Cociiran in the purchase and sale of 
real estate securities, a class of investments demanding close attention to details, 
and careful examination of records and the condition of ]iroi)erties. In this 
descrijition of investments, few firms have deserved and obtained so large a 
shai'c of the contidence and patronage of capitalists, real estate owners, ami the 
public generally. They have given the close study of many yeai's to tlieir bus- 
iness, and have added largely to the growth and ](rospei-ify of the city of Ches- 
ter, and also contributed greatly to the appearance of the business .streets. In 
fact, the mend)ers of this house are men who have identified themselves thor- 
oughly with the interests, trade, progress, and develojiment of Chester, and 
rendered transactions brisk and capital active. Their office for transacting 
business in Chester is at '.iOd Market street. 


The f)ldest Drug Store in Chester, and the one doing by far the largest busi- 
ness of any similar establishment in the city, is that of Mr. M. II. Bickley, lo- 
cated at the cornerof Fourth and Market streets. This business was established 
more than forty years ago, when Chester was a small town and contained but 


few prominent business houses of importance. Mr. Bickley i)urchased and took 
cliarge of the property in June 1851, and since then lias made many valualjle 
impi-ovements. lie lias erected liere a hirge live-story ))rick Ijuikling, wliich 
far surpasses most of the private or public business edifices of Chester. Mr. 
Bickley occupies three floors and the basement for transacting his extensive 
business, and he has spared no expense in making his establishment complete 
in every particular. The salesroom is 21 by 73 feet, and is handsomely and 
conveniently arranged for the compounding of prescriptions, the sale of jjatent 
medicines, and a general wholesale and retail business, while tlie cellar is tilled 
to repletion with a full line of oils, paints, white lead, window glass, &c., and a 
complete assortment of drugs and chemicals in their original packages. The 
stock embraces every variety of goods essential to a first-class drug store, in- 
cluding a large and well selected assortment of fancy gocwls, perfumery, soaps, 
brushes, pomades, sponges, &c. One of the main features of attraction in this 
well arranged establishment, is a handsome soda fountain, from which, in warm 
weather, the best of cool refreshment effervesces. 

The stock of goods carried is nuicli larger than any other drug house in Del- 
aware county, and has been selected with that care and judgment only attained 
with long familiarity with the business. Mr. Bickley buys direct from first 
hands and importers, and thereby always procuring fresh, unadulterated goods, 
and knowing how to bu}', he is prepared to offer country dealers and physi- 
cians, prices as low as any in the market. The wliolcsale trade is princii>ally 
in Delaware county, and to some extent in Delaware State. The house also 
deals largely in standard patent medicines, keeping only those of acknowledged 
merit, and avoiding all trash. They also put up a nund^er of original prepara- 
tions, wHose virtues are attested by hundreds who have used them. Mr. Bick- 
ley is a druggist of over thirty years' experience, is a graduate of the College 
of Pharmacy, and the compounding of prescriptions is a branch fully vnider- 
stood by him and his competent assistants. A prescription department is lo- 
cated in the rear of the store, apart from all other business, in order to avoid 
interruption, and to insure accuracy at all times. ^Vltliough Mr. Bickley does a 
very large business now, his sales are constantly on the increase. His rule is 
that goods must be sold, both wholesale and retail, as low as they can be pur- 
chased in tlie large cities, with which this house is in direct competition. Mr. 
Bickley is very popular in Chester, and is noted for his strict integrity and 
straightfoward business transactions, and his establishment is regarded as an 
honor and a credit to the city in which it is hK'ated. 


The above establishment, known as the " Mohawk Mills," lias been in exist- 
ence for a long time, but passed into the possession of its i)resent owners in the 
year 1871. Mr. Robert Hall, the senior partner of the firm, has been ideiitifietl 
with the cotton and woolen goods business from boyhood, though it is within 
the past fifteen years that he started to manufacture on his own account. He 
commenced in a modest and unpretending way, and, previous to moving to 
Chester, owned and ran a mill about two miles distant, near the suburbs of the 

These mills have gained an enviable reputation for the quality of the goods 
manufactured. They comprise a stone mill, running two sets of woolen cards 
and mules, and are located at the corner of Third and Franklin streets, in the 
most eligible part of the city. The main building is 120 feet long on Franklin 
street, and 37 feet front on Third street. In the latter are run 30 looms, w itli 
preparatory machinery of the finest pattern and latest inventiim. In adilition 
to this there are sejtarate making-ii]) and jjacking rooms, and a well-a])iioin(ed 
dye-house for raw materials and piei'c goods ; also, a lire-proof dry-house and 
picker-room, and a commodious office on Third street. These different depart- 
ments are all connected, and built in the most substantial manner. The line 
of goods manufactured comprise line i>oplins, alpacas, and other worsted and 
woolen dress goods. Largely and esi)ecially upon the al|»acas, the mills have 
acquired an enviable reputation. The establishment does not confine itself ti> 

KAIL K(>A1> <ail>K liddK. '.V.) 

the goods alroady mentioned, exelusively, Imt Hannels, eoltons, elieviois, A-e., 
are produeed in (|nantities to meet tlie demands of trade. The mills have a 
oapaeity of pnxhieing 40,000 yards of manwfaetnred goods jier anninn. About 
H2 liaiids are neeessary to kee]) the mills rniming. They are now, and liavc 
lieen, running on full time, and thei-e is a ready market for the goods. They 
are sold through wholesale agents or jolil>ers in New York cily, and from there 
distributed among the retail houses in all the principiil eities of the Tnion. 


In Chester, one of the leading dealers in Coal, is Mr. William Weaver, .Jr., 
whose offiee and yard is loeated on Seeond street, above Penn. The yai<l lure 
oceupied, formerly belonged to Bradley Bros., but which Mr. Weaver luu'chased 
in Septeml)er, ISTfi. Although the coal Itusiness is comparatively new to him, 
he is sut'ceeding in his new licld of lalior admiral)ly, and is rapidly building 
himself up a tine trade. A customer at this van! once, is a customer (or all 
time, for the reason that Mr. Weaver sells only (he best <piality of coal, and 
that at the very lowest possible price. He is enabled to do this from the fact 
that he rei'eivcs his coal direct from the mines by canal and by the Cliester and 
Delaware River Rail Road. These admiraltle transportation facilities are not 
possessed by nuiny coal yards in Chestei'. Mr. Weaver is delivering a new 
grade of coal I'alled " Enterprise," which takes well with the peoi)le of Chester. 
It is suitable either for cooking, heating, or for manufacturing purposes. He 
makes a specialty of this coal, and sells at the rate of three thousand tons an- 
nually. He also deals largely in kindling wood. A nund)er of men and teams 
are ke[it constantly employed delivering coal and kindling wood in the city and 
sul)urbs. The kindling wood is sawed and split, ready for use, and furnislied 
in fpiantities to suit, either by the box, load, or eoi'd. Mr. Weaver sjjent most 
of his life on a farm, his father being at present one of tlie oldest farmers in 
Delaware county, and he is well calculated to build u\) a large trade in any 
business. His customers are among the best class of people in Chester. 


Anuingthe many manufacturing establishments in Chester, none stand higher 
than the mills of B. (rartside »V: Sons, devoted to the working of hne wool. 
The business was first estal)lished by ]Mr. 15. Gartside in ISoT, forty years ago, 
on the Wissahickon creek, near Roxborough. The new enteri)rise rajiidly in- 
creased, compelling ]Mr. Gartside's removal, in 1S42, to more commodious mills 
at Darby, this county. In 18'')"2, when the facilities and advantages of Chester 
as a manufacturing centre, became known, the erection of the mills now occu- 
pied by the firm was conuuenced here. 

The Messrs. Ciartside devote themselves to the manufacture <tf woolen jeans 
of the finest grades, which are sold in Philadelphia and New A'ork by their 
authorized agents. Their make of jeans is (jne of the most i)o])ular in the mar- 
ket. Brooks, Miller & Co. are their agents in Philadelphia, and J>ird & Fran- 
cis conduct their sales in New York. They now have one of the most com- 
plete, as well as one of the largest factories in Chester, or vicinity. It is 98 
feet long by .38 feet wide, and four stories in height, filled with the most ap- 
proved machinery for making the finest woolen jeans. They have four sets of 
cards, run eighty looms, and give emidoyment tf) about eighty hands. Their 
annual production is about (lOO, ()((() vardsof goods, and the demand is constantly 
increasing. This is certainly a gratifying leature of this enteri)rise, and sjieaks 
well for the carefid nuuiagement of tlie energetic proprietors. The factory is 
located at the foot of Fulton street. The senior member of the firm is still ac- 
tively connected with all the interests of the lif)nse, and his long exjjerience and 
sound practical Inisiness ])rinciples, render him invaluable to the successful 
conduct of the l)usiness. This firm admira1)ly illustrates the importance of cor- 
rect business jirinciples and persevering industry in the cf)nduct of a business of 
magnitude. From the earliest hi.story of the house, their career has been 
marked with careful management, unswerving integrity, and unconquerable 


energy, and tiiosc qualities liave earned for tlieni a deserved prosperity, of wliich 
tliey lia\'e reason to he proud. Such tirins fh) much to liuiid \ip the material 
wealth of a city, and to create for it a valuahle rei)Utation ahroad. 


The well-known house of Mr. D. P. Paiste, forms one of the most prominent 
features of ('hester's mercantile industry, and his name is familiar to every 
citizen who trades in that enterprisinf^ city. The location is at the corner of 
Fourth and Market, the most eligible part of the city. The business embraces 
several branches, consisting of wholesale and retail hardware, seeds, household 
goods, and ship chandler's goods. 

The location. Fourth and Market, has been a prominent business stand for a 
great many years, even when the now thriving city of Chester was but a mere 
epitome f)r suggestion of its present self. Mr. Paiste rented the property in 
1874, and since he has taken charge of the enterprise, he has added consider- 
ably to its im])ortancc. He has now an am])le and con)iiiodious establishment, 
fronting 'JO feet on Market street, and extending back along Fourth street o5 
feet. This is at all times stored with a full line of hardware, seeds, household 
goods, &v. The farmer can purchase his seeds for the iield and garden here, 
feeling sure that he is getting them pure and fresh. In the hardware dejiart- 
ment is every description of building hardware, carpenters* to<ils, tire arms, 
cutlery, &c. Tiie stock in every department of the establishment is complete, 
and the salesroom is literally crowded with every descri})tion of merchandise 
in the line of the house. This is one secret of the remarkable success and large 
custom. Ml'. Paiste has always on hand everything he pretends to keeji, and 
his extensive trade enables him to sell at the smallest margin. 

He does a much larger business than any similar house in Chester, and his 
establishment is without a superior in Delaware county in the amount and va- 
riety of stock carried. The retail trade of the house is principally in Chester 
and vicinity, but the wholesale trade extends throughout Delaware and neigh- 
boring counties. Mr. Paiste is reliable in ail liis business transactions, and 
never allows an}- misrepresentation of goods for the sake of securing a sale. 
He is a young man of sterling integrity and strict linsiness qualifications, and is 
deserving of great credit for the energy and enterprise which has characterized 
his business career in Chester. He has been identified with this special busi- 
ness since boyhood, and formerly carried it on extensively at Mifflin, Pa., be- 
fore moving to Chester. He attends, personally, to all the details of his large 
business in Chester, and everything is done by him and his able assistants in 
the best manner. The better the facilities of such houses as this are known 
and understood, the more rapid will be their growth. The fine trade which 
Mr. Paiste has built up, is partially due to his being an attentive business man, 
but more particularly to the fact tliat he deals in only the best quality of goods, 
and never allows an imperfect article to enter his establishment. 


One of the oldest and most prosperous establishments in Chester devoted to 
the manufacture of cotton and woolen goods, is the subject of this sketch — the 
Lamokin Mills — situated at Frontand Franklin streets, of which Messrs. Lilley 
& Son are i)ro])rietors. These inills were established in IStiO, by Jas. Knowles. 
They were afterwards destroyed ))v fire, and, nftvv l)eing rebuilt, and passing 
through the hands of one or two other ])arties, Mr. John liilley ])urchased them, 
and took j)ossession in 1S71. Previous to moving here, Mr. Lilley owned the 
"Chester City Mill," in South Chester. lie retained an interest in the Chester 
City Mill for some time after moving to his ])resent location, but he finally dis- 
posed of this interest and jjut the capital in the Lamokin mills, enlarging and 
im])roving tiiem in various ways. Mr. John Ivillev, Jr., was admitted to the 
business in 1871, at the time of removal, and the firm assumed its present style 
at that time. 

The mill buildings are in the shajie of an " L." One ))art of the main build- 

ItAlI, UOAI) (il"II>K i;(l(lK. 11 

ing is 14'J feet dec]), and tlio "L" pari (•() i'wi iU-i.'\>. 'V\\r mill was iiici-cascd 
to more tliaii douKk' its capacity in ]\Iav, lS7o, by a two-slory lirick a<lditinn, 
;>") l)y ()0 Icct. The old i)art oi' the null was hut one story in height. The 
main hnilding has 40 feet front on Front street, and the new addition, which 
stands some 20 feet hack from this again, lias oo feet front on this street. Be- 
sides the hiiildings mentioned, tliere is the picker-honse and storehonse. A 
great part of the machinery in tliese mills is new, and of the most improved 
and latest pattern. Seventy-six looms, four sots of cards, and two self-acting 
nudes, with an eighty horse-i)ower engine, comprise the greater part of the 
machinery in the mill. To operate these looms and cards, sixty-three hands 
are t'onstantly employed. The jtroducts of the mills are Kentucky .leans, 
whicii, heing so generally used, always lind a ready sale. The Messrs. Lilley 
manufactiH'e on an average, ahout 17,000 yards of these goods per week. 
These are distrilmted principally from Philadelphia, through their agents, 
Meigs, Dale tV: Co. The mills run steady all the lime, and still they are unable 
to meet the demands made for the goods. The i)roprietors have in contempla- 
tion at an early <lay the further extension and alteration of the mills, so that 
their I'apacity may be increased at least one-third. The senior member of the 
lirm has been connected with the manutacturo of cotton goods all his life, and 
he has i-aised himself to his })rcseut j)rosperous ]iositiou simply by his own ex- 
ertions, lie is still actively connected with all the interests of the business, 
and his long experience and sound practical business piiuciples, render him in- 
valuable to the successful conduct of the business. 


('ous})icuous among the manufactories of Chester, are the Chester Dock Mills, 
of which ^lessrs. I^ewis & Parkerare proprietors. These mills were established 
in 1S64 by .J. W. Lewis, who was sole proj)rietor o( the business imtil 18()7, 
when M. E. Parker i^irchased in the nuuiufactory, and the firm assiuned its 
present style. The buildings are comparatively new and built of stone and 
lirick. The main building is three stories in height, and 207 feet long by 54 
feet wide. There are also various otlier out-buildings, covering almost as nuu'h 
groimd as is occui)ied by the main building. The lot on which the mill prop- 
erty stands is 3oO by 270 feet. The i)roducts of these mills consist of cotton 
plaids, checks, shirting, and other cotton goods. The amount manufactuix'd 
annually, exceeds 3,200.000 yards. The principal market is in New York and 
IMiiladelphia, where the goods are distriliiited by jobljers. About two lumdred 
o])crators are employed by Lewis & Parker, and about two hundred and twenty- 
six looms are rimning constantly in the mill. The power is furnished by a two 
hundred horse-power engine of the Corliss make. 


By far the most extensive Cotttjii Mills in ('hester, arc those owned by Ktibert 
Patterson & Co. There are two large factories operated imder this firm name 
in Chester. The oldest established of these factories is located on the south 
side of Broad street, and is under the superintendence of !Mr. .James Stejihens, 
a maiuifacturer of long experience, and a thorough business man. The lot on 
which this mill is located, measures 2().') feet on Broad street, 272 feet on Crosby, 
and •'5111] feet on Larkin street. Tlie mill was formerly owned and operated by 
.James Campbell, at which time it contained 5.536 spindles and 161 looms. This 
property was purcluused by General Patterson at Sheriff^'s sale in May, 1862, 
and has been operated, since that time, luider the superintendence of ]\Ir. 
Stephens. The old machinery in the mill, has, from time to time, be^n replaced 
with new, and is now composed of 21 "King" si)inning frames, with 31 (iS sjtiu- 
dles, and six self-acting mules, with 3024 sjiindles, making in all, 61',)2 spindles, 
and 46 looms. The present product of the sinndles will average 7000 pounds 
of cotton warps and filling, (cops,) Nos. 18's to 24's per week, and of the looms, 
11,500 yards per week of ticking, stripes, muslin, &c. These goods are sold by 


commission houses in New York, Pliiladelpliia, and Baltimore, and sent to all 
parts of the United States and oeeasionallv to i^outh Ameriea. The surplus 
warps and filling (eops) are disjKised of principally to weaving estahlishments 
in Philadeliihia. The motive power of this mill is a Corliss patent steam en- 
gine of about one hundred horse-power, with an 18 ))y 48 incli cylinder. About 
600 tons of Anthracite coal are used per annum for fuel. The annual consump- 
tion of cotton at this mill, is about !)00 bales, or 400,000 i)ounds. 

The other mill, owned Ity General Patterson in Chester, is located at the cor- 
ner of Sixth and Penu streets. This mill was erected in 186(5, on a lot contain- 
ing four acres, and is known as the "Patterson Mill." This mill contains 
14,088 si)indles, the average product of which is 17,000 pounds i)er week, or 
880,000 pounds per annum of cotton warjis and tilling, (cops,) Nos. 18 to 30's. 
There are 300 looms, producing 7o,()00 yards per week, or ;!,',)0(),(l()() yards per 
annum, of cottc)n drilling and uuisliu. These goods are sold in all parts of the 
United States, and are also exported to a great extent. Besides these two large 
mills above described, Gen. Patterson has three other mills at Manyunk, and 
one large mill at Lenni, Delaware county, Penna. 

The mills at Manyunk are known as the " Ripka Mills," and were l)uilt by 
Joseph Ripka between the years 18o0 and 183(), and passed into Gen. Patter- 
son's possession in 1864. They are designated as mills Xos. 1, 2, and 3. Mill 
No. 1 contains al)out 10,000 spindles, and is divided into several sections of 
carding and spinning, to facilitate the production of the various description of 
yarns reipiired by tiie diversity of goods woven in mill No. '1, which is a fine 
structure, six stories in height, containing 630 looms. The sixth story is de- 
voted to spooling, twisting and bobbin winding. Mill No. 3 contains about 
10,000 spindles, and was entirely rebuilt in 1868, and supplied with new ma- 
chinery. The Lenni mills are situated in the most beautiful section of Delaware 
county, on Chester creek, at the junction of the West Chester and Baltimcu-e 
Central Rail Road, eighteen miles from Philadelphia. The water power used 
for these mills has 22.1 feet of head and fall. There is here liotb a cotton and 
woolen mill. The cotton mill is driven by a ninety horse-power Kisdon turbine 
of the most improved construction, and the woolen mill by an oversliot wheel 
of about forty horse-power. The production of the cotton mill consists of 
warps and cops. The mills contain 7130 spindles and 65 looms, which con- 
sume about 10,000 pounds of stock per week. The product of the looms em- 
braces cottonades, jeans and inixed goods, at the rate of 11,000 yards per 
week. These goods are sold in New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore. 

The firm of Robert Patterson & Co. has been one of the leading houses in 
the manufacture of cotton and woolen goods for more than half a century, and 
during that time they have remained steadfast, enjoying the I'onlidence of all 
business men. The founder of this iuunense business, ( Jeneral Robert Patter- 
son, the old soldier and revered citizen, is to-day as active and earnest as when 
he defended the nation in its second war with the mother country. He left the 
army in June 181"), just after the declaration of peace, and in July of the same 
year established his business. As a manufacturer of cotton and woolen goods 
he is by far the largest in this section of the country, and his name and the 
fame and reputation of his goods is world-wide. 


This celebrated institution for tiu' education of young men to the ministry, 
was established in the year 1868. The buildings wei-e first erected by the late 
John I*. C'rozier for a Normal School, in 1840. During the war, Avith loving 
and j)atriotie devotion to his country, he gave the building up to the govern- 
ment for a Jiospital for sick and wounded soldiers. lie died in 1866, just after 
the close of the relieiliou, and leaving this institution to his sous, asked them to 
devote it to some l)euevnieut purjiose. They have responded iu a uuuiihccnt 
manner, by estal)lisliing here a si'hool for training and educating young men for 
the I '.aptist ministry. The sons, Sanuiel A., J. Ijcwis, Geo. K., and Robert 11. 
th-ozier, have also added an endowment fund of ¥228,000, the whole gift being 
about $390,000, and William Buckuell, Escp, one of the Crozier family, has 
since given $25,000 as a library fund. 


Tlu' Si'iiiinai-v l>Mil(l 
from \hv dejiot. Tin 

ms are situated on a t;eiitk' cniineiK r, alxiiil liaH-a-iiiili' 
appioacli fVoin ('liesler tor tlie ]HMlcstriaii, aloiiu' tlu' 

■;liru)), vine, and tree-elad l)anks of C'liester ereek, into and across the widi' lawn, 
is ;i delijijhttul walk. The main bnilding is four stories in hei,i>,ht, and a fiords ae- 
conuiiodations for one lunidred students. It is eonnnodions tliroughout, and 
contains all modern conveniences. The lawn is l)eautifully laid out, and con- 
tains trees and flowers in endless variety. On the grounds adjacent to tin; Seni- 
inarv l)uilding, are the houses of the professors, a church, a library huildiug, 
and lecture halls. 


The scluiol lias been eminently successful, and since first established the nuni- 
l)er of students have been aniuially increasing; at the present time it has 
nearly as many as can be accommodated conveniently. Almost every State in 
the [nion is repi-esented on its list of students. The training received here is 
excellent, and none but the most learned and comi)etent instructors are engaged. 

There is no better location in the country for an institution of this kind than 
the snbur])s of Cliester. The scenery in the vicinity presents in variety and 
diaracter luuch to please the eye; the atmosphere is pure, and the place is 
highly conducive to good health. It will thus be seen that CIrozier Seminary 
has ail the attractions, without the objectionalile features of a similar institu- 
tion in a large city; the <|uiet I'ejxjse and healthfulness which are so essi'Utial 
to a student's life, and which are found in a country town or village, i-atlier than 
in a crowded metropolis, are singularly characteristic of Chester. 


Among the most important operations in the 
which are carried on in the sash and planing mills. 


business, are tliose 
mpi-ovements have 


been made within the past few years in tlie maehinerv in tliis line (if Inisiness, 
and the work now done is executed in the most expeditious manner. One of 
the most complete establishments of this kind is located in Chester, at Chester 
Dock, of which Messrs. Morton, Black & Brother are proprietors. The steam, saw 
and planing mills located here are very extensive, and were established in 1865 
by Messrs. C. P. Morton and J. Frank Black, under the style of Morton & 
Black. In 1867 Mr. H. B. Black was admitted to the firm, and the present 
firm name was assumed, Morton, Black & Brother. Mr. Morton died in 1871, 
but the firm name still remains unchanged, the estate of C. P. Morton, de- 
ceased, still retaining an interest in the business. 

The yards and wharves of this firm are the most extensive of any similar es- 
tablishment of the kind within the vicinity of Chester or Philadelphia. There 
is a wharfage of over 500 feet, including a dock 70 feet in width by 450 feet in 
length. Immediately on the Delaware river and near two great lines of rail 
road, the factory of Messrs. Morton, Black & Bro. may be said to have un- 
broken connection with all points of the timber producing countries, and is 
equally accessible to the marts for the /same. The superior facilities ol' this 
firm enables them to do an extensive trade, and their sales aggregate over 
$200,000 annually. 

The mill is a large two-story building re[)lete with the newest and most im- 
proved machinery, and is furnished with all the tools and appliances reijuisite 
to a first-class steam saw and planing mill. The machinery is driven by an 
eighty horse-power engine, which does the work efiectively. A large anionnt 
of lumber is kept constantly on hand, which is thoroughly dried and seasoned 
before being used, in the drying rooms of the factory. Hemlock from uj) the 
Delaware, pine from Carolina, Georgia and Florida, by the side of Pennsylva- 
nia white [line, together with material for ship builders, can be seen plenti- 
fully piled about the mill, whilst the ceaseless hum of machinery denotes the 
source in which the rougli timber is prepared for use. From thirty to forty 
men are employed, and the trade, which is rai)idly increasing each year, ex- 
tends throughout Delaware county, in the States of Delaware and Maryland, 
and all ahmg the route of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Kail 
Road. The manufactures consist of sash, doors, blinds, door and window 
frame mouldings, both pine and walnut, flooring, siding, packing boxes, &c. 
They also do scroll-sawing and wood-turning, and keep in stock house carpen- 
ters' and builders' materials, and almost everything that is needed in building 
or general decoration in wood work, if not on hand will be furnished to (irder 
with dispatch at this establishment. In the manufacture of these articles, 
Messrs. Morton, Black & Brother are able to coinjiete with any similar estal)- 
lishnient in Pennsylvania. The Messrs. Black are well and favorably known 
throughout Delaware county, and have rapidly built up an extensive trade. 
They are public s})irited gentlemen and enter heartily into any project that 
will promote the welfare and interest of the city in which they live. They 
liave had many years experience in the business in which they are engaged, 
and take an active part in superintending the details of tlie same. Mr. 11. B. 
Black is also sole owner of the Chestei- Fdge Tool Works, where the well- 
known " Beatty i^ Son" tools are made. A description of these works is 
given on another page. It is to such men as the Messrs. Black that Chester 
owes her reputation as a manufactui-ing city. 


These works may be said to be the ollspi'iug of the oldest establishment of the 
kind on this sidi' ol' (lie Atlantic. Wm. lleatly iV Son t'ommenccd the manu- 
facture of e<lge tools in (his country in ISOfJ, locating their works in Delaware 
county, about tliive miles from Chester. F>eginning in an humble way, at that 
time young and enterprising, they, by the force of skill and the em])loyment of 
the best artizans, soon took a leading part, establishing (ln' fact that as 
good M\ article could be j)rodneed in America as in Kugland. Still pursuing 
the same course, continually adding important improvements, ihey made their 
reputation a national one, and for the last sixty years the old familiar imprint 


of "Win. Beatty & Son," on a liatcliet, axe, or otlier tool, has hwn consiiU'ml 
a test of superiority from one end of the eountry to tlie otlier. 

In the vear 1871, Mr. John V. Beatty, the only surviving ineniher of the 
original tirm, vaeated his former quarters, and selected a site for new l)uildings 
in Chester. Here he erected extensive works for the prosecution of a moreex- 
tended business. These comprised tool mills, grinding and polishing mills, 
forge and welding shops, and all other necessary buildings. These works \vere 
continued here under the old established name of " The Chester Edge Tool 
Works." Mr. Beatty continued as proprietor of the works initil Ajiril, 1S7-"), 
wlien his interest in the establishment was purchased by Mr. Harry B. Black, 
a member of the firm of Morton, Black A: Bros., since which time valuable 
improvements have been made in the works. A forty horse-power engine runs 
the mill, wiiieh is completely stocked with the most elHcient trip hammers, 
grinding and polishing anvils, and, in fact, all the peculiar machinery an<l a})- 
pliances for this branc^h of trade. The location of the mills is excellent, being 
on the line of the Reading Rail Road, and near the Delaware river, where the 
materials, iron, coal, &c., can be brought direct to the doors of the works, either 
by rail or water. 

The high standard of the articles manufactured is fully guaranteed. These 
consist of house and ship carpenters' tools, coopers' and Imtchers' edge tools, 
and particular attention is given to the manufacture of rail roail tools, and 
butchers' cleavers and choppers. These are made from the best brands of Nor- 
way iron and extra retined English cast steel. It is useless to say that their 
reputation has been gained and maintained on the gnMUid of superior material, 
temper, and finish. It is these <pialities that distinguish them from the inferior 
make of tools with which the market is Hooded. The " Wm. Beatty & Son's " 
goods have borne the test of seventy years, against foreign competition and 
home prejudice, until the superiority of their make has become so apparent, 
that if it is now denied at all, it is sinqjly the result of envy on the part of un- 
scrupulous and less enter})rising manufacturers. 

Tlie works are vmder the innnediate sui>erintendence of Mr. John C. Beatty, 
the only surviving i)artner of the original iirm of Wm. Beatty & Son. With 
increased cai)ital and improved nuichinery and facilities Mr. lilack will not 
only keep the tools up to the old standard," but if it is possible in any manner 
to improve them, in either shape, material, temper or finish, the public may 
rest assured it will be done. So confident is he of the merits of the tools made 
at these works that he gives tlie following warranty, and pledges himself to ad- 
here to it under all circumstances: "If a tool stamjjed 'Wm. Heatty A Sou, 
Chester, Pa.,' proves soft so as t(j bend on the edge, and is returned to the mer- 
chant who retailed it, within thirty days after i>urchasc, a new one will be 
given in exchange." This warranty extends to all tools made at the works, 
and although coimtless numbers of these are in actual use and iminense (juan- 
tities sold annually, yet the cases are rare indeed where imperfecti(ms of this 
character are found. 


The almost universal demand for popularlight vehicles has stinuilated the in- 
dustry which supplied it, and made carriage making one of our leading manufac- 
turing industries. Chester has several eslalilishmenls in this line, llu' oldest estab- 
lislied being that of Messrs. Wolfenden Evans & Co., located at Filth and 
Welsh streets. This is a very old stand, and w^as first estaldished about the 
year 1855, by a Mr. Taylor, who carried im the carriage making Imsiness in 
Chester for a number of years. It afterwards jjassed into the hands of I. I'. 
Branin, who sold the i)roperty to Wm. Iloldsworth. Near (he cU)se of last 
year, ISTG, the present firm purchased the proiierty from the assignees of Mr. 
"Holdsworth. The new tinn is eomixised of energetic young men, who are 
aliundautly able to make tlie business a success. Mr. Wolfenden Evans is a 
native of England, though he has lived in Chester for a number of years past. 
The other partner, Mr. Charles Evans, was formerly a resident of Wilmington, 
where he learned and worked :it the carriage making business before coining 


here. Both the partners are practical mechanics, and have mastered the busi- 
ness under the best advantages. Already tliey have built up a good local trade, 
which is constantly increasing. The mannfactory is a two-story frame building. 
The difi'erent departments are so arranged as to most commodiously work to- 
getlier, and they contain every modern imi)rovemont and pf)ssible convenience. 
In the warerooms the Messrs. Evans keep a numl)er of linished veliicles on 
hand. In these, beanty, elegance and strength are admirably combined. They 
are certainly very attractive, and would be consiiicuous objects on any of Ches- 
ter's thoroughfares. All kinds of carriages and wagons are made to order, and 
the capacity of the works is about one lumdred iinislied vehicles annually. 
The Messrs. Evans make a specialty of tine, liglit falling-top buggies and fam- 
ily rockaways. These finely linished and elegant little family coaches are seen 
on the streets of Chester almost every fine day. They may be supposed to cost 
a great deal of money, and in some of tlie larger cities tliey do, lint the Messrs. 
Evans bnild tliem and sell them at a price wliich jilaces them witliin tiie reach 
of families who are able to own carriages at all. They manufacture any style 
at short notice, and in finish and attractiveness they cannot be excelled l)y any 
otlier maker. The enterprise and push of these young men deserves the pa- 
tronage of every citizen of Delaware county who contemplates the purchase of 
a vehicle for himself and family. 


The Powhattan Mills, situated at the village of Powhattan, in the suburbs of 
Chester, are owned by Messrs. Shaw & Esrey, and were first established in 
1866. Tlie firm own two mills in this* locality and are now building a third 
one on the Upland road. No. 1 mill was built in 1866 and No. 2 in 1S71. 
Both mills give emjiloyment to about two hundred hands. No. 1 is 209 feet 
long by 55 feet wide, and three stories in height. No. 2 mill is 115 feet long 
by 55 feet wide and three stories high. No. 1 runs 2100 spindles and Nc). 2 
24G6 spindles ; there are 236 looms in both mills. The machinery in l)oth mills 
is run by steam with an eighty horse-power engine in each one. The })roducts 
of the mills are princi])ally cassimeres, jeans and doeskins, which being used for 
clothing by the masses of the people, lind a ready sale. Of these and other 
cotton and woolen goods they make over 2,000,000 yards annually, and when the 
third mill is completed they will have a t'apacity of about 3,000,000 yards an- 

The new mill which will be comi)leted about the first of Septend)er of the 
cnrrent year will be tiiree stories liigh, and the fnll length of the imjirovement 
will be 247 feet. The main building will be 157 by 55 feet ; the engine, dye, 
boiler, dry, and store-Iionses together, are 00 feet long anil i'^r) Avide, and one 
story and eighteen feet high. The mill will be built entirely of stone, (piarried 
from the site. The wood-w(n-k will be of yellow pine, from the lumber yard of 
J. & C. D. Pennell, in Chester. The picker room will be 50 by 40 feet, 16 feet 
high, and will have iron girders and beams, and be arched with Itrick. It will 
have a fiag floor, and will be as near fire-proof as stone and iron can make it. 
An eighty iiorse-powei- Corliss engine, made by Ko1)ert Wetlievill cV Co., Ches- 
ter, will run the macliinery. The difierent (le]iartments will lie all connected, 
and built in the most substantial manner. The luachinerv will be entirely new, 
and (jf the most improveil American and iuiglish makes and pattern. 

Few cotton and W(Jolen mannfncturies in Chester have been as successful as 
that of Messrs. Shaw ik Esrey. It is less than twelve years since they first 
came to Chester, and commenced to manufacture in a nuiderate way. Now a 
little village has grown up about their mills and their business has been con- 
stantly on till' increase every year, compelling them to exti'ud and double the 
capacity of their works twice since first starting here. With the new mill in 
ojieration, they will be the nuist extensive cotton and woolen manufiicturers in 
('hester. They sell their goods through agents in l'liiladelphi;i and New York, 
their trade covering almost every section of country. The pi'oducts of tlii' 
nulls have, in twelve yi'ars, gained a reimtiition and celebrity in the commer- 
cial community equal to that enjoyed by establishments which have been man- 



iifiU'tnrinj:: for lialf a oendirv. Tlu' indivitliial iih'imIhts of the linn are 
Iliiuli Shaw and I). Ui'ese I'^sivv. Tlicir extonsivi' oin'ratioiis have condihutc'd 
yri'ady to llie iiTowtli of Clu'stcr, and lliov are n'l'ntlenien wlio are higlily es- 
tei'ined and respeeled by all i;ood eilizens. 

WORKS-JOHN ROACH & SONS, Proprietors. 

These works const ilute the most important industry in ('luster, and are proli- 
alily not exi'eedeil in extent and iniportanee hy any oilier similar works on the 
Western Continent. The head and i'ront of this ureat estahlislunenl is Mr. 
John Roaeh, whose saiiaeity, skill and iMieryy have lieeome world renowned, 
and whose noble example has acted on the American }i<(iple like an inspira- 

AUhongh freipient reference has been made to tlu-se extensive works by the 
press, and other pnblit'ations, their capacity, importance, and great value to the 
eoiintrv at large, ai-e not fully appreciated. They are too often considered a 
mere local enterprise, while in reality they art' truly national in their inllnence, 
and are in every way worthy of the name they have acquired of being the most 
complete, extensive and etiicient ship-yards this side of the Atlantic, and in 
many respects uncqiialed in the old Avorld. 


The history of these works is easily written, and dates back only to the year 
1871. Mr. Roach was a ship-builder in New York, and jiroprietor of the 
well-known Morgan Iron Works of that city, where engines, boilers and ma- 
chinery of all kinds are made. Having extraordinary business capacity and 
being eminently self-reliant he conceived the idea of greatly extending his 
o})erations ; and in looking about for a suitable location he selected the shiii- 
yard at Chester, which at that time covered about twenty-three acres with a 
river I'ronl on the Delaware of about l,'2()0 feet. This large establishment Mr. 
Roach purchased and took possession of in 1871. In February of the follow- 
ing year an organization was incorporated tinder the title which it now bears. 
The company was organized wdth Mr. John Roacli as President, Mr. John B. 
Roach as Secretary, and Mr. William Parker, of New York, as Treasurer. 

From that time forward the progress made has been almost marvelous. The 
area of the vards has been largelv increased and the river front to nearlv 


li!ilf-a-niile, while buildings have been erected, until there is a large settlement 
in appearance, consisting of machine shop, foundry, two blacksmith shops, 
boiler shop, siieet-iron shop, copper shop, grinding shoj), joiner shoji, mould 
loft, boat yard shops, &c., all on a very extensive scale with all the latest im- 
provements in api>lianees and machinery. The works wlien in full lilast give 
employment to about 'JOOO men, nuiking a weekly pay-roll of 8'20,000. 

There has lieen ))uilt at these works, next to the (ireat Eastern, the largest 
steamsliips afloat. The " City of Peking," and the " Tokio," two steamships built 
for the Pacific Mail Steamshi]) Conii)any, New York, have been regarded as 
the best ships on the ocean, and are now running between San Francisco and 
China and Japan. They have also built seven smaller steamships for the 
same Company. Since 1872, when they began to build iron shijis, they have 
built 33 iron steamers, (counting those now undercontract,) having atotaltonnage 
of (J8,lo0; of this tonnage 8'J,500 l)eing now engaged in the foreign trade, and 
some (jf it sul)sidi/A'd by tlic British (iovernment, after tlie refusal of a subsidy 
bv oiu' own. Engines have l)een liuilt for tliese vessels with an indicated horse- 
l)ower of 44,1)2(1, and other engines for hulls constructed at other yards, having 
an indicated horse-power of 25,260. As will be seen by the important table 
published with this article, the large sum of !?14,890,(X)0 has been, (or will have 
been bv September 1st, 1877,) paid out by the iirm for the materials and labor 
of the country. 

During the past winter ■Mr. Roach commenced two vessels on ids own ac- 
count, in order to keep the hands employed. This act was highly commended 
by all right-minded peo})le, and it prevented a great deal of suffering among 
the working class of pcojile, who would have been thrown out of employment 
had the works temporarily suspended. It is a cheering sight to witness the 
high activity of these colossal works at a time when there is such a general 
comi)laint of dull times. 

Tiie office of this large establishment, where it nuiy be said the thinking is 
done and the plans laid, is a neat, three-story building, located at P^ rout and 
River streets. It is occupied by the officers, accountants, and draughtsmen. 
There are kept emi)loyed here a number of draughtsmen and designers. These 
men put upon pa])er every portion of a vessel, and the ])lans thus drawn are the 
guides for the workmen. This is a very important branch of the work, for a 
mistake made here is disastrous, and mme, therefore, but the most competent 
men are employed. There are also a number of clerks and book-keepers em- 
])loyed here, and tiie utmost system lias been adopted in every dejiartment. In 
fact it is only by careful attention to details, tluit Mr. Roach has lieen able to 
bring these com])licated operations to a financial success, which lias justly given 
him such distint'tion throughout the world. 

Tiie carefully iirepared table given lielow, shows the amount of material of 
all kinds consumed, and tlie amount of money jiaid out therefore, and for wages 
for the construction of iron ships and marine engines, at the ship-yards t)f 
Messrs. John Roach & Sons, at Chester and New Y(u-k, during the five years in 
which ship-building has been carried on by this firm. The statement covers 
not only tlie five years ending January 1st, 1877, but the materials to be con- 
siiiiied and the amounts to 1)e paid out during the present year, under contracts 
wliicli must lie c()iiii)leted l)y September 1st, 1877. Tiie taliie shows tiie variety 
of trades to wliicli iron siup-biiilding gives em])loyment, and it will disclose tlie 
secret of the immense profitableness to a country of this important industry. 
Rear in mind, in glancing over the figures, that' of the !r;]4,8!)(),000, not over 
SI, 000,000 of it was paid for crude materials. The wood, the metals, cotton, 
liemp, etc., cost only about 5 per cent, of the whole ; all the rest was for skilled 
labor, and from tliis some idea may be formed, not only of the national impor- 
tance of these works, but their effect and iiniiortance to the growth and i)ros- 
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Iron sliip-l)uildino; is one of tlie most profitable industries in the world. 
There is a fortune in it for the l)uilder who understands his business, and has 
organized it properly, and it is a lucrative thing for the people among whom it 
is carried on. It puts immense sums of money into circulation — very much 
larger than people are generally aware — and it gives employment to more trades 
than any other industry. Its benefits to a people continue after the exj)endi- 
ture of money for lalior and materials. A ship once set afloat upon the waters 
and actively employed in commerce, gives cdutinual occupation to labor on land 
and sea. Repairs and supplies are continually called for liy it, and an aumunt 
of money equal to 50 per cent, of its cost, (if it is a steamship, and 30 per 
cent, if it is a sailer,) is expended upon it and by it, anmuilly, during the whole 
of its active existence. It has to be replaced, too, in time, so that when once 
set going in a good trade, the employment it gives to labor and capital is pei'- 
manent. Tiie Itusiness of 1)uildiug iron sliips is a matter entirely distinct from 
that of working them. The latter i)ays well in a got)d trade. Nearly all the 
splendid ste;inislii])s plying between tliis country and Europe, and up and down 
our coast, have licen built out (if the profits of the c(>nii)anics owning them. 
There are periods, nt) doubt, when the business of navigation does not pay, and 
great losses are entailed on the owners of ships. Whether commerce pays or 
not, it always pays to build shijjs, steamers, and sailers, of wood as well as of 
iron, eventually ; if not for own trade it will do so for other nations, and it is a 
thing of direct national importance to have the art carried on upon as large a 
scale as possible within our borders. 


These mills are among the largest and most prominent of Chester's recent 
improvements. They were estalilished in the year 1874, when tlie buildings 
were "first commenced, and are owned and o}ierated by a stock company, regu- 
larly incorporated under the Cieneral Manufacturing Laws of tlie State. The 
entire premises eudjrace about oO acres, and were purchased from a JNlr. ^Ic- 
Daniels, of Philadelphia. The main building is 185 by 100 feet in dimensions, 
to which is attached two wings, one of which is 93 by 72, and the other 52 by 
45 feet. Tiiere is also a large blacksmith shop and engine house attached to the 
mills proper. The buildings are all frame, substantially constructed of first- 
class materials, and jiainted a dark brown color. The location is tlie site of 
the old works of the Bessemer Steel Com}>auy. 

The motive power for driving the iiiachinery consists of two magnificent 
Corliss steam engines, and five smaller ones. The largest of the ('(u-liss engines 
is 30 by 72 feet, and has a fiy-wheel of 08,000 pounds weight and thirty feet in 
diameter. This engine is used for i-unning plate trains of rolls, of wliii'h there 
are three, and the largest of which rolls a plate 108 inches in width. Tlie otlier 
Corliss engine is 26 by 48 feet, with a fiy-wlieel of 50,000 )>ounds weight and 
24 feet in diameter. This engine is used for driving a puddle train. The five 
smaller engines ai'e used for driving immense sliears of various sizes, wliicli are 
used for cutting and ti-iiiiming jdatcs of rolled iron. ]>y this admiiable system, 
each piece of machinery in the mills is run by a sepai-ate engine. There are 
;ilso in the mills ei<;ht large ])ud(lliiig furnaces, and a four ton steam hammer. 
The iron is heate<l bv gas, the jjroccss jjeing a new invention, consisting of Sie- 
man's Patent Furnace. These are the first and only mills in the United States 
that have adopted this method for heating iron plate, although it has been very 
successfully used in Pittsburg for heating beams, and in other sections of the 
country for heating steel. It has also been adopted witli great success in Kuroi)e. 
A much ))etter and more uniform heat is obtained than by the old style fur- 
naces, and, conse([uently, the iron manufactuied is far superior. The Chester 
Rolling Mills have two of tlicni, and the results already olitained are vi'ry fiat- 
t«riiig. The manufactures of the mills consist of boiler i)lates, tank-iron and 
shi]) plates, the greater bulk of which is used in the construction of slii)is at the 
ship-yards of Mr. Roach, at Chester, although tlie company fre(piently (ill or- 
ders from other sections of the countrv. 


Tlie Company first ooniinoiurd operations on 
that time tliev have been rnnnino- steady, eini)h 

( -'hark's T>. Ilonston is Treasurer and manager o 
He was formerly conneeted with tlie Paxton Iron 
lias had lont;; practical experience in the iron 
Mr. Roach for the resjionsible jiosition, the d 
efiicientiy discharges, in consequence of his gre 
integrity, and the excellent management which I 
duct of enteriirises of this character. In cone 
productions of the < iieslci' Itolling Mills are ve 

the tirst of July, ISTo, and since 
)ying over loO hands, and turn- 
ing out aI)out forly tons of 
iron [>er day, the capacity 
of the mills enaliling tliian 
lo somelinies maiuifaclure 
an amount exceeding that 
<|uantily. The works have 
a large frontage on the Del- 
aware ri\er, with suhstau- 
tial wharfs for loading and 
unloading vessels. The 
Reading Rail Road tracks 
pass along one side oi' the 
premises, and sidings from 
l)oth that and the I'hiladel- 
l)hia, Wilmington & Ralti- 
more Rail Road run into 
the works. These facilities 
for transportation are I'arely 
ever j)ossessed l)y any siuii- 
X lar enterj)rise, and they af- 
"^ ford the ( 'ompany unusual 
^ advantages, and enalde them 
^ to conduct their operations 
'^ with great expedition. A 
►H neat and commodious otiice 
c is to he found at tlie works, 
"^ witii telegraph oflice and 
other conveniences, which 
still furtlier aids the ( 'om- 
liany in transacting Imsiness 
with promptness and dis- 

The President of the 
Comj)any is Mr. .John 
Roach, a ski'tch of whose 
extensive ship-yai-ds is 
given elsewhere. Air. Roach 
is generally known through- 
out the country as a gentle- 
man of great ahiiity, stei-1- 
ing integrity, and a ])romo- 
tcr of entt'rprise and pro- 
gress in .Vmei'ican shiji- 
huilding and manufactm-ies. 
^Iv. I). F. Houston, a gen- 
tkinan educated in the iron 
manufacturing business, is 
the Secretary f)f the Com- 
pany, and devotes his entire 
time to its service. Mr. 
L'se exti'usive rolling mills. 
Works of Hai'iasburg, I'a., inid 
industry, lie was sei<'ctcd bv 
uties of which lie now so verv 
at administrative aliilily, sti'ict 
le always exercises in the c^n- 
hision, we may state that the 
rv essential, .and of great value 


to the sliip-l>iiil(linj<' interests of tlie phioe, tlie proprietors of" tliat iiuliistry liav- 
ini4 lieivtot'ore been ol)li^e(l to import largely of these materials from other sec- 
tions of the oonntry at greater cost. 


These works are located at Eddystone station, just below Chester, and were 
erected here in 1S74 and 1875. The jjroprietors are ]\Iessrs. William Simj)son 
& Sons, who removed here from the Kails of Schuylkill, above Philadciphia. 
The new works are l)uilt on an extensive scale and cover, altogether, al)oiit 
twenty-nine acres, and give employment to over six hundred hands. The build- 
ings are built of brick and number about twenty, all told. The products are 
print calicoes, and the sales exceed $1,500,000 annually. 

Eddystone is the title of the print of the firm, named after the far-famed 
Eddystone light-house. The machinei-y in the works is almost entirely new, 
and is kept in running order l)y the firm themselves, they having their own 
machine shoY)S and mechanics on the grounds. A thriving neighborhood has 
grown up al)out the works, and the iuiial)itants are generally industrious, most 
of whom are employed by the Messrs. Simj)son. Tliis establishment has added 
largely to Chester as a manufacturing center, and it will be seen ihal a lai'ge 
number of the citizens of Chester derive their sujtjiort from it entirely. 


The extensive business house of Mr, Lewis M. Larkin, in Chester, is located 
at the corner of Broad and Upland streets. The business carried on liere em- 
braces several branches, consisting of dry goods, notions, trinuiiings, hardware, 
(pieensware, earthenware, groceries, teas, wines and liipiors. The establish- 
ment is well arranged and commodioiis, and the stock is large and valuable. 
It is three stories in height. The lower floor is devoted to the salesroom, and 
the basement and iijiper floors are devoted to storing the various kinds of mer- 
chandise. Mr. Larkin has a splendid local traxle, embracing the greater part 
of the wealthy families of Chester and vicinity. 

The business was estal)lished by the present proprietor about the year l.S()(). 
The volume of trade compares favorably with that of houses in Philadelphia, 
and there seems to be no limit to the extent to which it may be enlarged. The 
extensive trade is largely due to the ability of the house to compete in j)rice 
with the most favored, and to the complete assortment of goods always kei)t in 
stock. Mr. Larkin is eminently a practical, thorongh-going business man, and 
is thoroughly familiar with every branch of the business in which he is en- 
gaged. He is cpiitc ])opular in Chester, and has a wide circle of friends 
throughout the county, who esteem him highly for the energy and enterprise 
he has shown in liuilding up his extensive business. 


This hotel is on Third street, below Market, and is tlu' leading hotel in Ches- 
ter, and among the su(U'essful Inisiuess enterprises of the jilace deserves more 
than a passing notice on these )>agcs. Mr. l.enjamin ]\I(u-ris, the jiroprietor, 
erected the Morris House in 1S75. It has sui)[)lied a want long felt in Chester, 
as previously the city wa.s without a really first-class Imtel. 

The building is a three-story brick structure, with a very attractive exterior, 
and allbrds accommodations for nearly one hundred guests. The ])arlors are 
on the set-ond llooi', and are elegantly furnished and easy of access. The en- 
trance for ladies to the I'cception parlor is on Third street. Thi' sleeping de- 
])artnn'uts are well vi'ntilated, and the whole house is kc]it in admirable ordei-. 
'J'hc dining rooms and restaurant are on the flrst floor, and the inner man can be 
refreshed without taUing many w'cary steps. The bill of fare is excelk'Ut, and 
the epicurean features of the liouse are among its iirint'ipal attractions. All 
the luxuries of tlie season are served in the best style and at moderate prices. 
The sa.mi>le department is a perfect specimen of good taste, order, and adaj)- 
tion of mi'ans to end. It is stocked with the wealth of the flushing vinevarils 


of France, and its liquors selected from the choicest stocks by the most experi- 
enced judges. There is a l)illiard room connected with the hotel containing 
two C'ollender tahles. The location of the jNIorris Mouse is very convenient, 
and is the best in the city. 

Mr. Morris is a native of C'hester, and he has had a long experience in the 
hotel business. He is too well versed in a management of this nature to forget 
the necessaries attending a hotel, and his career as proprietor of the Morris 
House will no doubt be a prosperous one. He is i)rogressive and I'ully uj) to 
tlie times, and it is through his excellent management that the Mauris House 
lias become st) popular with the best class of citizens. 


Within tlie last det'ade numerous private l)anking ]u)uscs ha\e sjjrung into 
existence all over the country, and their establishment in towns and cities, here- 
tofore destitute of the unecpialed advantages which they ofler, has been of in- 
calculable value to the business interests of the nation. As in every other 
branch of business there havi' been failures as well as successes, but the liene- 
lits accruing tVom tiie latter have been incomjiarably greater than the former. 
A leading house in this branch of ])usincss is the Banking House of Mr. Sam- 
uel A. Dyer, in C^hester, located at !) West Third Street. Mr. Dyer established 
himself in the banking business here in the year 1869, at which time he erect- 
ed the splendid building now occujiied by him. It is built of beautiful grey 
stone, and contains every convenience and facility for carrying on the business 
successfully. The lower floor is occupied by the bank, and the upper floor is 
divided into offices for lawyers and professional men. The difierent apartments 
have plenty of light and the ceilings are unusually high, thus aflbrding plenty 
of ventilation. 

Mr. Dyer conducts the banking business here in all its various hranches, 
and advances money on Delaware county real estate. Deposits are received, 
subject to check, and interest is paid on the same by special agreement, when 
left for a specified time. He has always on hand city and county bonds paying 
from 7 to 10 [)er cent, interest. Although comparatively of recent origin the house 
of Samuel A. Dyer stands prominently fortii in the front rank of the business cir- 
cles of Chester, and the liusiness done compares favorably with any other house 
in the same line in Delaware or Chester counties. The i)ro])rictor is 
thoroughly familiar with every point and detail of the business, and every- 
thing is done hy him in an honorable and ))usiness-like manner. He is like- 
wise a gentleman of sterling integrity and strict husiness (jualifications, and is 
exceedingly popular with the best class of citizens in Chester. By energy and 
strict attention, Mr. Dyer has built up a reputation which reflects credit not 
only upon himself but also on the business which he rei)resents. 


This establishment forms one of the most important business enterprises 
of Chester, and was estal)lis]ied about the year 1S5S. The warehouse is loca- 
ted at No. lOo West Tliird St., and is the largest of its kind in Delaware 
county. Mr. Taylor does a lai-ge business in the sale of agricultural im])le- 
ments, and keeps all kinds which are required to meet the practical wants of 
farmers and gardeners. Standard articles of the most superior manufncture 
and of the latest and most excellent invention are only kept on hand and sold 
by this house. Among the machines kept in stock is the Philadel})hia Lawn 
Mower. This machine is very complete, and admiraldy constructed u]ion the 
most simi)le as well as scientific principles, and its great superiority and pop- 
ularity is attesteil in the strongest manner by the universal use of them 
throughout the country. Mr. Taylor also deals in patent horse rakes, plows, 
and cultivators of different kinds, horticultural tools, fertilizers, seeds, &c. His 
stock of farm and garden seeds is from the well-known seed house of H. S. 
Dreer, and are sold at the same prices here for which they can be obtained at 


tlie wliolesiile liotise. Tlie farmer can piircliase liis seo<ls liere feeling assnred 
that, lie is getting them pnre and fresh. 

The line of hardware, which is one of tlie sjiecialties of the house, emliraees 
hnilding hardware of every deseriiition, locks, holts, hinges, latches, door knohs, 
door bells, escutcheons, etc., in (]iiantities siilHcient to stock several ordinary 
stores. The stock is very large, every corner of the estahlishment heing lit- 
erally crowded with every description of merchandise in the line of the house. 
They make it a point to keep the best of everything, and every article sold can 
be dcjiended upon as being fully np to the standard. The trade of the house 
is botli wholesale and retail, and extends to almost every portion of Delaware 
county, and to some parts of Chester county, and even to the States of Dela- 
ware and Maryland. Mr. Taylor is one of Chester's most honored citizens, as 
well as a wide-awake, successful and energetic ))usiness man. He has a wide 
acquaintance, and is at present occupying the i-esiionsilile jiosition of County 
Treasurer, to wliich he was elected l>v a large majority of the voters of Dela- 
ware county. 


The latest enterjirise in the business circles of Chester is the establishment of 
a new lumber and coal yard on Edgmont Avenue, near the P. W. & B. R. R. 
Depot, by Mr. Frank K. McCollum. This is an old stand, however, and was for- 
merly occuiiied by Mr. D. S. Bunting, whose extensive stock was entirely 
burned out in November, 1876. Mr. McCollum took possession of the yard 
here about the first of May of the current year, and he has put in a large stock 
of the finest building lumber, well seasoned, and arranged in the yard in con- 
venient style, ready for delivery. His stock of coal is doubtless one of the best 
in the city, and it cannot fail to give the utmost satisfaction to housekceiiersand 
other consumers. He claims to sell tliis superior grade of family coal at prices 
equal to that asked for an inferior article. I'esides coal an<l lumber, Mr. Mc- 
Collum deals lai'gcly in lime, sand, hair, ]ilastcr, ciMiicnt, etc., and from such a 
large and varied stock, the farmer and buildei- cannot fail to have tlieir every 
want suiqilied. The yard is large and commodious, and has every convenience 
for conducting the business on an extensive scale. The coal and lumber is 
brouglit to the place by rafts and barges and unloaded at the wharves of the 
yard on (Chester Creek. 

Mr. McCollum is not by any means a novice in the liusiness in which he has 
recently entered, but on the contrary, has had a long exiierience in the same, 
and for a number of years was book-keciier and salesman for Mr. Bunting in 
this yard. He aftei-wards accei)ted a jiosition in the Delaware County Na- 
tional Bank of Chester, which he held up to the time of commencing busiiu'ss 
liere on his own account. He is a young man of excellent business ({ualifica- 
tioiis, full of pluck and energy, and well calculated to make any enteri)rise a 


There are more cari'iages, buggies and light wagons in use among thi' Anicri- 
can iieopie, in pro])ortion to the num])cr of inhabitants, than in any conniry 
in the world. This fact has givi'U a great imiietus to tiic manufacturi' of all 
kin<ls of vehicles, and stimulated our inventors and mechanics to excel in lliis 
di|i:nliiient of industry. The most pi'ominenl establishment in lliis line oi 
business ill Chester, is that of Mr. I. I*. Branin, located on Sixlli street, facing 
I lie rail road, near the dejiot. Mr. Branin lias been engaged in the carriage- 
making business for more ilian twenty years, and for live yeiirs he occupied ihc 
old s(and at the corner of Kil'th and Welsh streets. At the expiration of his 
|c;isc be bought the property at Ihc corner of Si xth and Bine streets, city ol 
Cliester, ;ind removed thereto. Tlie iinsciit building is :i bliik cdilice, 10 by 
tir) feet, two stories liigli, the lirsl lloor of which is used I'oi- an otiice, reposi- 
loi-y, wood workmen and bhicksniillis. 'i'lic second story is used as a painting 
and liiuiming department. Mr. Branin has also the contract given out for a 


rejiository a(lj(iiiiin<;; liis l)uil(lin,n^, 40 hy ^0 foot, two stories ]iii;Ii, which, when 
conniletod, will make one of the finest show rooms in the eonnty. 

I\Ir. Eranin t'oiiimencetl in a modest way and lias heen eminently sneeessfnl 
in the hnsiness in whieh he has Iieen ent;aned. IIi' has ior a loni;' time )>een 
the leading' mannfaetnirr in Delaware eonnty, and has seenred an excellent pa- 
tronage thronghoul Pennsylvania, Delaware and adjc^ining' States. He mann- 
factures all kinds ot' carriages, phaetons, bntrnies, sprint;; wagons, A:c., and 
nnikes a specialty ot' family carriages and falling-toji hnggies. The carriage 
reptisitorv contains some tine sjieciuR'ns of his W(jrk, which in style and iinish 
Avonld satisfy the most critical taste. He also deals in second-handed carriages, 
whii'h he sells at very moderate jjrices, and attends to all kinds of repairing. 
A nnnrl)er of comjietent workmen are constantly employed, and all work ema- 
nating from the estahlishment is fnlly wan-anted. The i'a}iacily of the works 
is ahont one lunidred and twenty linislied carriages annnally. 

The material is carefnily stored, for seasoning, nnder cover on the gronnds, 
and none l)nt the most perfectly seasoned and choice lnnd)er is nsed, and great 
liains are taken to tnrn ont the Ijest vehicles that can possibly be made. Mr. 
Eranin is well-known thronghont Delaware eonnty as a i)rompt and straight- 
forward hnsiness man, and is one of the most honored and highly resi)ected 
citizens (ji' Chester. 


This iiaper is the oldest, and has always been the leading weekly jiaper in 
('hesler, and has a lai-ge established circnlation in the city an<l thronghont Del- 
aware comity. The llrjiiihUcaii was first started in the year IS.'!.") by its present 
editor and projtrietor, Mr. Y. S. Walter. It was at that time less than half its 
present size, and Chester was then a small town with a few hnndred inhabi- 
tants. The paj)er was for a long time i)rinted in a bnilding at the corner of 
Third and Market streets, bnt the increase of hnsiness demanded larger qnar- 
ters, and in lS7o Mr. "Walter erected a large three-story brick bnilding on 
Market street, below Second, which he now occnpies as a printing honse. This 
strnctnre is 25 by 60 feet. The eonnting room and the job printing department 
is on the first floor, the former in the front and the latter in the rear. The 
second floor is nsed as editorial and composing rooms, and the third floor is 
being prepared f(jr a bindery. The steam engine and the newspaper and job 
pre.sses are in the basement. 

Mr. Walter has jiroven himself to be one of the most successfnl editors in 
the history of the State. He has always manifested the utmost pride in his 
hnsiness, and can be fonnd at his office at all honrs, ready to chat with patrons, 
and evoking from all any scraps of local news they may have in their posses- 
sion. Everything of interest in this or that neighl)orhood, or to the comity, 
always fmds a brief or extended description, jnstas its importance warrants. 
He is carefnl, however, to exclnde anything like scandal or gossij), whether 
])olitical or social, thi'ows ont all trash, and in this way has made the paper not 
only high-toned and nsefnl, bnt really essential to every fireside in the eonnty. 
Mr. Walter never took mnch prominence in the politics of his State, thongh he 
was elected to the State Legislatnre in 1876, from Delaware county, by a large 
majority of the popular vote. He is a practical i)rinter, and the tyjiographical 
appearance of the i)aper is excellent, and in taste and workmanship far sm- 
passes any journal of its class in the State. This fact is admitted Ijy printers 
and newspaper men generally who are ac((nainted with the pai)er. The edi- 
torials, which are usually from the i)en of Mr. Walter himself, show lioth snap, 
ability, good judgment and fearless advocacy of political princijiles. The lie- 
publican is now aekninvledged to be one of the most able and active Kepub- 
lican organs of the State. Its advertising patronage is large. Especially 
numerous are it.s local and transient advertisements. Frerpiently you can see 
several columns of a number occupied with wants, local meetings, real estate 
and personal property advertisements. These exclude much other matter 
.sometimes, but comit much better in dollars and cents. Altogether, the DcJa- 
ivare Counlij Republican is a model of success in the newsi)a2jer line. 



Tlie (_'stal)lisiiiiK'iit (if Mr. K]>vv .laiiKs, located at tlie toriKT (if Third and 
Edgniont streets, i.s tlie leading one in Chester, devoted exclusively to gro- 
ceries, })rovisions and fruits. The stock here is one of the largest in the city 
and embraces all kinds of fancy groceries, canned goods, teas, jirovisions, and 
every kind of fruits in season. P^verything kept on hand is strictly pure, and 
exactly as represented. Besides the domestic and trojiical fruits of all kinds, 
a lai'ge stock of jireserved fruits and jellies is kept on hand. These comjirise 
all the small fruits and jellies, and are (piite popular with the hest families in 

This business was commenced here about the year 1871, and a large trade 
has been estalilished in the city and vicinity. The store is very commodious 
and the location is one of the best in Chester. The great variety of articles 
kept in stock at the store of Mr. James is really suri)rising to those who have 
never visited the place. The jirices at which goods are sold here are often lie- 
low tlujse of other houses, and fully as low as that of any Philadelphia estali- 
lishment in the same line. Mr. James is a shrewd buyer, watches the market 
closely, and buys his stock of goods just at the right time. .\s goods well 
bought are said to be half sold, this advantage is not overlooked by the pati'ons 
of this well-known estalilishmenl. I'robalily no other house in Delaware 
county, dealing in the same line, can show such a varied and extensive assort- 
ment of pure, fresh and clean goods. 


There is nothing which strikes the casual visitor in Chester more forcil>ly 
than the general air of solidity which characterizes the oldest houses in trade 
in tlie city. The business estal)lishment of Mr. David S. Bunting, extensive 
dealer in lumber, coal and lime is one of the most conspicuous of these houses. 
The business of this estalilishment was connnenced in ISfi'i and is now in the 
sixteenth year of its successful operation. The business was carried on for a 
nund)er of years on Edgmont Avenue, near the rail road depot. But in No- 
vember 1S7*>, the premises, together with a large stock of lundier, Ac, were en- 
tirely consumed by fire, — the conllagration, the largest ever occurring in 
Chester, lasting for several hours and destroying a large amount of projierty. 
Mr. Bunting was not discouraged by this disaster. He has again established 
himself at Broad and Edgmont Avenue, and stocked his yards with a large 
variety of building bunber and the best family coal. The facilities of the 
yard are uneipialled for loading and unloading coal and hunber, being in direct 
conununication with the Delaware river, from which barges and vessels can 
easily arrive at his wharf on ( 'hester creek. The new yard is much larger than 
Ihe old one, and an arrangement has been added for kee)iing lundier in the 
dry — ample shedding with convenient jiiling grounds, Aic. These facilitit's af- 
ford every advantage for carrying a large and varied stock of lumlier, by 
which Mr. Bunting is enabled to till almost any bill on siglit. 

'I'he coal department of the business is under the charge of tried and ex- 
|u lienced employees, who are interested in sustaining their reiuitatiou for care- 
I'ul prt'par'ation and prompt delivery. Close attention to tlu' wauls of his ciis- 
tduiers, and fair dealing, have bi-ought Mr. Uunting a large share of |iulilic 
patronage, all of which is richly deserved. Chester is fortunate in having 
among her business establislimenis one of such high characler, integiily and 
fuiancial streuglh. 


This Company, with llolurl Il.<'id/,er as I'residenI, .ind Hon. \\'illiani Ward 
as Secretary and Treasurer, al ilsluad, has coiiliiliiited greatly to the growth and 
prosiicrity of ( 'licster. They own a large tract of land in South Cliester, ex- 
tending from the ik'laware river to liinwood street, above St'vi'nih street, and 
fidiii Ward to 'i'rainer street. This laud is oHered for sale in lots twenty feet 
front by one hundred and thirty to one hundred and forty feet deep. Within 


tlic past few yoais a srcat nianv lots have been disposed of liere, and this part 
of the neiylilxn'liood is l)uildin,<r up raj)idly and tlie ])rice of real estate is 
steadily advaneing. The lots vary in priee from 6140 to 6")(I0, aceording to the 
loeation. The terms of sale, which are very easy, are one-fourth of the amount 
in cash, and the balance in three etpial annual instalments, with interest at six 
per cent. By this plan tlie laboring man as well as the nuin of wealth and lux- 
ury can i)rovide himself and family with a home of their own. Chester may in 
reality be called a city of houses, having a dwelling house within its limits to 
every five inhai)itants. In no otiier city are tiie iiVlustrious classes so widl i)ro- 
vided for, or on the average so contented and ready for toil ; and in no other is 
there found a higiier average of intelligence or more jiiiysical enjoyment of life. 
As a rule these Injmes in the city proi)er iiave water, bath houses, kitclien 
ranges, plenty of light and air, and a majority of them liave gas. The sites for 
such homes are oftt-red in otlier i)arts of Chester and the Eorough of Chester, 
beside those already mentioned. They are all located in close proximity to the 
rail roads, ship-yards, cotton and woolen mills, rolling mills, and other indus- 
trial estalilishments of Chester. 

Mr. Ward is also largely interested in the sale of real estate along this line 
of rail road, and owns an interest in a large tract at Sharon Hill station, which 
is now Ijeing sold in lots to I*hiladel})]iians who desire to erect sul)urban and 
summer residences. Sharon Ilill is the most beautiful spot in all Delaware 
county, and is accessible from the city every liour in the day, trains running to 
Broad street dei)ot in less than fifteen minutes. There are twenty-five or thirty 
handsome homes in the vicinity, and others are constantly going up. 

Mr. Ward has had a long connection with real estate transactions in Chester 
and vicinity, and has been very successful in his various operations. He is a 
self-made man, and has raised himself to his prominent position in the com- 
nnmity l)y his f)wn jiusli and energy. His parents died while he was quite 
young, and he received his education in (lirard College. On graduating from 
that institution he entered the newspaper office of 'Sir. Y. S. Walter, in Ches- 
ter, and learned the printing trade. On coming from the Republican office he 
entered the office of Hon. John M. Broomall, as a law student, and was admit- 
ted to ])ractice at the Delaware county bar in the year 1859. He has always 
stood high in his profession, and his efficiency as a practitioner of law has gained 
him an extensive and lucrative practice. Everything submitted to his care is 
always done in the most honorable and straightforward manner. As a court 
practitioner he is without a peer in his profession. He took but little promi- 
nence in politics until the opening of the cami)aign last year, when, at the ur- 
gent request of his many friends in Delaware county, he allowed his name to 
be used at the Kepublican Nominating Convention as a candidate for Member 
of Congress from the vSixth District, comiiosed of Delaware and Chester coun- 
ties, and at which he received the mianimous vote of all the delegates assem- 
bled, and this, too, after a most vigorous canvass by his f)pponent, Mr. W. C. 
Gray, for the office. At the election held in November, he was elected by a 
large majority, and ran considerably ahead of the rest of the ticket, showing 
that he is not only popular in his own i>arty, Init also commands the confidence 
of many of the opposition party. He has always l)een identified with the in- 
terests, trade, progress and development of his city, and he will be greatly 
missed while he is absent at Washington attending Congressional duties. But 
Delaware, and also Chester county, will be benefited by sending him to Wash- 
ington as their Member of Congress, for it is evident, and he has already de- 
monstrated the fact, that he will make as faithful a Congressman as he is an 
honorable and diligent business and professional man at home. 


This is the principal business house of Ciiester — one of the oldest in the place, 
having been established some fifticen or twenty years ago. The firm of 
Messrs. Hinkson & Smedley undoubtedly do the largest business of any mer- 



cantile house in Clie.ster, or proljiihly in Delaware county. Tiie buildinff occu- 
pied Iiy this firm is k)cated at the corner of Fourtli and Market Streets, and is 
three stories high, and oO hy 55 feet in size. It is divided into two depai-t- 
nients, one devoted to dry goods, and tiie otiier to groceries and kindred arti- 
cles. In the drv goods de]iarttnent are dress goods, (hunestic fahrics of all 
kinds, tal)le danuisks and linens, lunlting, and evei'ytiiing kept in a lirst-class 
drv goods house. Tiie car})el and oil cloth department is on the second lioor, 
where a large stock of Brussels, tapestry, and ingrain carpets, in new and 
heautiful designs is kept on hand. Also nuittings, oil cloths and window 
shades, feathers and mattrasses. Besides this the stock embraces all kinds of 
foreign and domestic groceries, provisions, etc., so that nearly everything in 
the whole range of trade may be found here in <piantities. The stock in hoth 
the dry goods and grocery departments is complete and full, anil the business 
tlone amounts to about ?15(),()U0 a year. Tiie trade is liotli wholes;i!e anil re- 
tail iind extends over ((uile a large territory. The long experience of tiie 
members of this lirm eualiles them to select their stock witii direct reference to 
the wants of their trade, hence their shelves are not burdened with "dead 
wares." Their ani])le means and well-knijwn resjionsibility enables them to 
buy goods on their own terms, and they are enabled thus to ofier careful l)uy- 
ers, both wholesale and retail, very superi(jr inducements. 


It is an incontrovertilile fact that in no country on the foce of the globe are 
the accommodations for travelers ccpial to those in the United States. Ameri- 
cans returning from foreign travels, all tell the same tale of the inferiority of 
the hotels, restaurants and cafes to be found in all European countries. Tlie 
go-ahead, energetic nature of our peojile keejis thousands of them continually 
"on the wing," in search of business or pleasure, thus producing a constantly 
increasing demand for first-class nccommodations not felt l)y any other nation. 

No city of the same size and iioimlation is l)etter provided witli hotels than 
Chester. The oldest, anil one of tlie best hotels liere is the Wasiiingtou House, 
located at the corner of Fifth and Market streets, of which ^Ir. Harry Abbott 
is proprietor. This hotel is Iniilt in the most substantial manner, with graceful 
verandas in front, and furnishes accommodations for about forty guests. Tlie 
plan of tlie building is very complete, it being so constructed that during the 
heated season every room has a thorough ventilation, and the inmates tliereof 
can receive the lienefit of the cooling breeze, that is so conducive of comfort liy 
dav and rest by night. The large and neatly fitted-up dining hall is on tlie 
first lloor, and is so arranged as to present the great iKsideratiim of warmth in 
wintei' and coolness in summer. Tlie accommodations for families are excel- 
lent. The rooms are all lighted witli gas and furnished with every modern 
convenience. There is a commodious stable attached for the aceommodalion 
of peofile from the country who drive to town. The charge for stabling is only 
the actual cost of the feed used. The location of the hotel is in the most eligi- 
ble part of the city, and only a minute's walk from the depot. 

Mv. Abbott has undertaken to furnish every comfort, and muiiy of the luxu- 
ries of life, at a price wilhiu the reach of the majority of the traveling luiblic, 
and that he has been complett'ly successful is demonslratt'd by the verdict of 
his numerous i)atrons. Although bk'ssi'd with all the suavity and generosity of 
tlie landlord of the olden time, Mr. AbboK is progressive and fully up to the 
times, and combines in his person, in an admirable degree, tlu' cordiality of the 
last gi'iieration and the (|uick peneplioii of llie pn'seiil, and is, therefore, a 
frienil to old and young. He leaves no stone uulnnied lo make his guests feel 
thoroughly conil'orlable and at home. 


This is the most )iopular l''ire Insurance Comiiany in Helaware County, and 
though chartered and incor]iorati'd by the State it is nat a stock coui])any. In- 
surance against loss by lire is ellected upon dwellings, stores, and contents at 



rates much lower tlian tliat of stoek coinpanies. Tlie ('oinpaiiy, as stated, is 
entirely mutual. Tiie great majority of all property owners and business men 
in l>elaware county insure in the Chester ^Mutual. Its transactions are re- 
stricted to certain localities, and the business has been more limited in amount 
than other companies of its tige and standing, whose operations arc extended 
in many cases over every portion of the country. The aim of the officers and 
directors of the Chester IMutual has been, not to do a large business, but 
rather a moderate and safe one, and their course has been successful in every 
res[)ect. The statement of the Company for ISTC) speaks for itself. It indi- 
cates judicit)us management, strict economy, consideration for the insured, and 
care in the selection of risks. It shows that the Chester ^Mutual Insurance 
Company is no longer an expei'iment, but that it is now firmly estal)lishe(l and 
in a prosperous condition. All losses are paid promptly on application, if 
there has been no deception practiced, or any violation of the terms of the 
policy. The officers of the Company include some of the most prominent pro- 
fessional men, capitalists and business men of Chester. They are as follows: 
.loiin Larkin, Jr., President ; ( Jeorge M. Booth, Secretary and Treasurer; Direc- 
tors— .lohu Larkin, Jr., William Ward, .lames Irving, (Tcorge j\I. Pardoe, 
William Hooth, William I>. Proomall, Penjamin (Jartside, M. IT. Pickley, 
(Icdrge liroomall, William I). H. Serrill, Perciplior Paker, and J. Newlin 
Trainer. These gentlemen are well-known in Cliester for their iniluence, busi- 
ness capacity and high moral standing. 


The most conspicuous article of wearing ai>i)arel is prol)a])ly the covering 
for the head. It is a distinctive characteristic of all classes of people in all 
countries. The W^irld's Fair, like that of Paris in 1S07, anrl of Vienna in 
1873, and the Centennial last year in Philadelphia, where the representatives 
of all nations were gathered in their native costumes, furnished a most gro- 
tesque and picturesque collection of head coverings and ornaments. The hat 
antl cap trade is an interest scarcely second to any in mercantile pursuits. 
Chester has several stores in this line of business, one of the oldest and most 
conspicuous of which is that of Mr. J. A. Mitchell, No. 24 West Third St. 
The stock at this store is kept ni) to the very highest standard, and comprises 
a very full assortment of children's cloth and felt hats, caps and turbans, 
men's soft and stiff felt hats, and the latest styles of fashionable silk hats. Mr. 
Mitchell also, in season, deals largely in men's and boys' straw goods, and keeps 
a large stock of the most desirable styles on hand. His prices throughout are- 
exceedingly reasonalile, and as low as any store in Chester. He makes a 
si)ecialty of silk hats, and is prepared to sup)ply the trade with the latest New 
York and Philadeljihia styles. 

Tlie liuilding owned and occupied by Mr. Mitchell is a three-story structure, 
supplied with every modern convenience. The salesroom on the tirst floor is 
complete in all its details ; light, airy and commodious, with two large, line 
l)late glass show windows. The stock is the largest in Chester, and comes prin- 
cipally from Philadelphia, Imt is made to order specially for the Delaware 
county trade. The aim of Mr. Mitchell is to keep a full stock of everything 
in the hat and ca]) line, and at ])rices to suit people of all ranks and stations in 
life. He attends personally to the business, and has maile himself a good run 
of custom and is ([uite popular in Chester. The store is conspicuously located, 
and the front is made very attractive, being nicely painted. No establishment 
in Philadeliihia oilers better inducements to careful buyers, and the jjulite and 
aHal)le bearing of the proprietor will secure the deserved conlidence of all who 
may give him a call. 


The Livery, Sale and Exchange Stables of Mr. John (Irundy are located on 
Fifth street, "between Market and Welsh streets. Mr. ( Irundy is successor to 
the tirm of (irundy & Maloy, and has devoted over twenty years to this busi- . 
ness. During the whole of that time horses have been his constant study. 



ITis turnouts sire amoiii;' the iinest seen <in tlie tliorounlit'aresot" Chester, anil liis 
lidrses are well kej)!, gentle ami excellent driving animals. Competent and re- 
liable drivers are sent with teams when reipiested. He owns, altogether, ahont 
15 horses and some twenty vehicles of various descriptions. 


The firm of Messrs. C. A. Story & Son, tobacconists, does probably the 
largest business of any similar estaljlishmenl in (Jliester. Their store is located 
at 407 Mari<et street, and it is at all times Tilled witii a complete and well se- 
lerled slock of the very best brands of cigars and tol)a<'i'(i, cigarettes, (lipcs, etc., 
whicli are sold at prices as low, if not lower than any othei' estaljlishment deal- 
ing in cigars and tobacco in Chester. Mr. C. A. Story, the senior member of 
the firm, has been identified with the tobacco business for a long time, and he 
is a comiietent judge of what is good and of what is inferior, in everything per- 
taining to tobacco. His Key West Cigars, for delicious fiavor and fine smoking 
qualities, are unequaled. The firm make a specially of this brand of cigars, 
and they are made especially for their ti-ade by Seldenljerg A Co., of Key \\'esl, 
Florida. They are now the favorite cigar with the patrons of Messrs. Storey 
& Son in Chester. 


Tliis firm is engaged in the fiirnisliing undt'rtaking business in Chester, and 
their place of business is at No. 24 East Fifth street. It is one of the olilest 
business concerns in the city, and was founded by the senior partner, Mr. Wil- 
liam A. Minshall, about the year 1859. In the year 1871, Mr. Minshall gave 
his son Thomas an interest in the establishment, an<l the present firm name was 
assumed. No otiier undertakers in the county give l)ctter satisfaction at 
finierals than Messrs. Minshall & Son, and (nie, or botJi, give personal attend- 
ance to sucli occasions. They have two pair of beautil'ul l)lack horses and own 
two lai-ge hearses enclosed in glass for adults, and one small one for children. 
Tiiey have Dr. A. G. Reed's patent corpse preserver, and keep coffins and cas- 
kets of all descriptions on hand. p]itlier member of the firm can be consulted 
at their residences, either before or after business hours, when the ofiice is closed. 
The residence of the senior partner, Wm. A. Minshall, is at No. o5 West Tiiird 
street, and that of the jiniior member, Thomas Minshall, is at 519 Welsli street. 


The leading Jewelry house of Chester is that of Mr. Joseph Ladonins, No. 
320 Market street. Mr. Ladomus connnenced business here in 18t)4, and has 
been remarkably successful. The building now ot'cupied by the business is 
three stories in height, Ui feet fnmt, ancl very convenit'Ut. it has a large 
plate glass show window for the display of goods, whicii are at all limes lilled 
with the s;iiue, and whicii form one of the most altrai'tive features of Market 
slret'l, the pi-incipal thoi'ougiifai-e in (_'iiester. The slock end)races ail kinds of 
jewelry, waldies, clodcs, sihn'rware, s[>ectacles, elc., and is very large, wi'll se- 
lected and elegantly displayed. Mr. Ladomus ki'cps ihe very best gold and 
silver watches that are made, and has sold a great many in Clu'ster and vit'inily 
within the ])ast few years. All watches are warranti'd, and if nol salisfactory 
after a trial are exchangi'd. 

There are here clocks of all gradis, tVoin the best linished American and im- 
ported, to ihe low-prici'd Ni'w Fngland clock. Also, nei'kiaces, braci'lels, 
breasl-jtins, ear-rings, studs, ni'(l<-chains and watch-chains of evi'ry grade and 
variely. 'I'lu' silvt'r anil silvi'r-plateil wareis vim'v liui', and some of tlu' designs 
ari' eiegaiU and iliasle. Tlu' slock will compare favorably wilh that of many 
I'hiladelphia retail estidilishnuMils, and few of them can make a belter show. 
Tlu' iocalion is one of tiie most di'sirable in Chester, and tlu- salesrooms adnut 
jilenty of light for liie display of goods. Tlu' success of this house during the 
time it has bi-i'u in existence, furnislu's an illusti-ation of what may be done by 
energy, industry, and inti'lligeni business management. 



The most imjiortaiit (,'st;il)lislinR'nt iiKmiil'actiiring and dcaliiiy in caUes, (Mtn- 
fectionery and ice cream in Chester, is tliat of Mr. \Vm. ()t;k'shy, located at 15 
West Third street, tlie most central and convenient part of the city. Tlie linild- 
ing occupied is a three-story brick structure, and the store-room on tln' first 
floor is a model of systematic neatness and scruimlous cleanliness. 

For delicious ice cream, Oglesby's is the acknowledged head-ijuarters in Ches- 
ter, and tiie amount manufactured here in one season alone bears lestiniony to 
this fact. It is no unconunon occurrence for them to turn out as much as 250 
(piart,s a day. On the first floor, in the rear of the store-room, is a large saloon, 
hu-nished in elegant style, and capable of accommodating a great many custo- 

The nuiuufacture of fancy cakes is one of Mr. Oglesliy's specialties, and Ills 
reputation in this line has l)een so firndy estal)lished, as scarcely to re(piire a 
[lassing notice. Suffice it to say he bakes every variety known, and also bi-ead, 
which, in (piality, is unapi)roachalile. Mr. Oglesliy is the poi)ular caterer, in 
his line, for the clitr of Chester, and his elegant taste and efiicieucy in all the 
i-ecpnrements of the ball and select party business, have given him a local fame. 
He nuinufactures nearly all his own confections, and besides his retail trade, 
supplies a great many dealers in Delaware county. In the nuuiufactnre of' 
candies he uses only tlie best material, and no adulterations are indulged in. 
This is the only estalilishment of the kind in Cheslei' that nuinufactures all the 
articles in which they deal. To the wholesale trade this house otters very great 
inducements, guaranteeing prices as low as the New York and Philadeli)hia 


Among the numerous and prosperous industrial establishments at Chester, is 
the Vulcan Works of Mr. Wm. H. Green, manufacturer of brass and iron 
cocks, valves, steam whistles, gauges, wrought and cast-iron pipes, fittings, tools, 
and every description of engineers', machinists', and steam-fitters' supjilies for 
steam, gas, water, or oil. These works are located on the Delaware river, in 
South Chester, and were estaljlished about the year 18G4 by the jiresent pro- 
prietor. The main l)uildiug here is about 50 by 120 feet in size. In 1874 this 
building being inadequate to meet the demands of the increasing business, 
another building loO l)y (10 feet, was added, wdiich greatly enlarged the facili- 
ties of the establishment. 

The trade literally extends to all parts of the Union. They do a large busi- 
ness in heavy brass fittings and fixtures for steamships and vessels, and supply 
the extensive ship yards at Chester, and also Wilmingtfm, Philadelphia, Balti- 
more, and other places. 

The works have the advantage of both wafer anil rail road Iransportaiiou. 
furnishing easy access to all pai'ts of the country for the heaviest goods. Con- 
ti'acts are taken for heating buildings l)y steam ; jihins of pipe are also cut to 
order. Brass and iron castings of every tlescription are made to order. Every 
description of plain and galiz wrought and cast-iron pipe, and wrought, cast, 
and malleable iron fittings are made to order. It would reijuire a large cata- 
logue to specify the various kinds of work done, but the above ari' sutlicient to 
indicate the character of the business. 

They oct'upy warerooms at the south-east cornerof Front and Market streets, 
Philadelphia, and also in Chester at 52!) Market street. Mr. (Jreen is also the 
agent of one the largest establishments in the country making machine bolls, 
bolt ends, rods for bi'idges and buildings, hot ])ressed nuts, washei's, log screws, 
set screws, top bolts, ikv., and keeps a large stock of these articles on hand at 
the warerooms in Chester and I'liiFa, and can offer them at manufacturer's 
]>rices. The warerooms in Philadelphia are in charge of Mr. M. II. (ireen. 
Here there is always kept in stock a large assortment of goods in this line. 
The fittings are sujiplied to the trade, or put in place by competent workmen 
employed for the jiurpose. Estimates for work are furnished and sent by mail 
whenever desired; also, price lists of all the principal articles maiud'actured. 



Mr. Wm. H. (iroon, the proiJi-ietor of the ^^Ilean Works, is a thoroughly 
pnictical man, and has IkkI a louii; ex])erience in this chiss of work, and has 
been reniarkahlv successful in all his midcrtakings. lie ^ives his jjersonal at- 
tention to all the iniiiortant details and nuarantccs satisfaction in every partic- 
ular. His establishment is as complete as ample means and a thorough knowl- 
edge of the business can make it, and its operations contribute very materially 
to "the prosperity of Chester. The proprietor has just cause for pride in the 
high reputation he has achieved in his department of industry. 



This station is located in South Chester borough, iifteen miles from Pliila- 
delphia. South Chester and North Chester boroughs are mere extensions of 
the city of Chester beyond the incorporated limits, the former on the south-west 
and tlie latter on the nortli. The same paved streets and brick sidewalks i-on- 
tinue, with nothing to designate the line where one jurisdiction ends and the 
otlier begins. South Chester was incoriH)rated in LStUJ, and in ISTOthc num- 
ber of inhabitants was 1242, and the present jMipuIation exceeds loUO. North 
Cliester was incorpoi-ated in 1873, and its population is about 1100. The bor- 
ough of Ujiland is about half a mile north of Lamokin station, on the line of the 
r>a Hi more Central Kail IJoad, and it adjoins Chester City an<l North Chester 
liorougli. ll was I'ounded l>y tlie hite .lolni ]'. Cro/.ier alx.ul liie year ISb"), mid 
Ihc entire borougli is still owned mainly by bis sons. The iiopidation is about 
ICOO. Ivxteiisivc cotton mills make up llie grcal business of the place, an<l llie 
neat rows orcomlbrtalilc brick houses, ibc ( 'liurch, Suuday-scluiol, and Library, 
tcslU'y lo Ihe ngaril the enterprising owners have for llu' |"i|iulalion in their 

.Instabonl i>amokiuisa busy ])lace, and several iiidusli iai estaiilislinicnls are 
in oiuM-alion indie vicinity. Tiie most important of these are the Mcllallie 
Steel Works, the I'jirek.i Steel Works, and the shops of the P.altimore Central 
i;,. i;. Company. 'Hie trains of tiic liallimore Ccnlral Koail branch "II' lo Ihe 
lel'l here, and go up I be Clieslcr Creek Kail Ko.ail lo I he WesI ( liisler .1 unction. 
Aflcr (his Ihe i-oad 1 ra vciscs llie most rcrliieaud pioduclive portion of 1 >ela- 
ware and Chester counties, and lias ils lenuiuus at I'ort l»eposit. The princi- 
pal towns and stations on the i'.altiiiioic Ccnlral Koad, are I'plaiid, I'.ridgwater, 

I^AIL ROAD f;riI>E HOOK. (')'! 

Rockdale, Lonni, W. ('. .luiu-tion, CliL'skT Heights, Concord, llrimdywinc 
Summit, C'hadd's Ford, Faii'villc, Koscdalc, Kcniictt, T()iii;ld<ciiaiii(m, Avmi- 
dale, West (irovc, Pcnii, Klkvicw, Lincoln I'nivcisily, Oxford, Nottingliani, 
Rising Sun, Colora, Rowlandvillc, and I'oi't Deposit. 


A mile further on the train stops at Tliurlow Station, wiiicli is luil a sliort 
distance beyond the Chester borough line. Tlie station buildings here aie neat 
structures, and the interior very conveniently arranged. ( )n an eminence to 
tlie right, is the large and ct)mmo(lious summer boarding house of Mrs. J. M. 
Sanderson. It is a iavorite resort during the summer months, and as high as 
seventy-tive boarders from IMiiladelphia are acconnnodated at one time. The 
building is a tine three-story structure, of a beautiful brown stone, with a cupola, 
from which a splendid view is obtained of the river and the surrounding 
country. One of the linest residences in the vicinity is that of Samuel M. Fel- 
ton, Fsip, formerly Pi-esidcnt of this road. His resideni'c and handsome 
grounds, about half a-mile from the station, are not surpassed by any on tlie 
line of the P. \\. & B. Rail Road. Mr. Felton is quite a wealthy man, and is 
largely interested in the sale of real estate, and owns an interest in various in- 
dustrial works and rail roads throughout the country. He is President of the 
Delaware Rail Road, and also of the Chester Creek Road. He is also Presi- 
dent of the Pennsylvania Steel AVorks, a large corporation with extensive works 
near Harrisburg, and a liusiness otHce in Philadelphia. Mr. .J. J. Tliurlow, 
after whom the station is named, owns a splendid residence and a lai'ge farm of 
land in the vicinity of the station. Other large and well-cultivated farms are 
those of Jacob E. Bright and John McClune. The handsome private resi- 
dence of Geo. E. Bent, is another feature of the place. 


Trainer's station, sixteen miles from Philadelphia, is the seat of the large 
cotton mills of David R. Trainer. ( Juite a little village, of about 300 poi)ula- 
tion, has sprung uj) here, which nundjer are supported almost solely by the man- 
ufacturing establishments of Mr. Trainer. The goods manufactured at these 
mills are in general use, and are well known with the dry goods trade. Tliere 
are two large three story factories each 50 feet wide, and one 160 and the other 
145 feet long, and built in the most substantial manner. The other buildings 
connected therewith are the engine house, boiler, picker, dyeing, drying and 
cotton houses. The bouses occupied by the operatives of the mills of Mr. Trainer 
are about 50 in nundjer, and are mostly neat frame structures, two and three 
stories high. 

Among the most imposing rural homcst)f Trainer is the mansion and grounds 
of Mr. David R. Trainer, in full view of the passing train. The grounds here 
are beautifully laid out and ornaTuented with taste, while the villa connnands a 
fine view of the surrounding country, the Delaware river, and the .Jersey shore 
beyond. Mr. Trainer also owns a farm of excellent land, containing about 250 
acres, which is improved and cultivated in the highest art of practical and mod- 
ern farming. There are one or two other attractive country seats in the vicin- 
ity, adding much to the attractiveness of the place. 



Tliis is tlu' next statiun readied after leaving Trainer's, and is sixteen and 
tliree-ionrllis miles iVoin Philadelpliia. It i.s a very pretty place in snnimer 
time, and many I'liiladelpliians make it their resort dnring the heated term. 
North-west from the station in Chichester, are some of the most fertile and pro- 
ductive lands in the State. John B. McCay, a prominent i)olitician of Dela- 
ware county, (nvns a si>lendid farm of ahout 200 acres, and Kohert Armstnjng 
one of 400 acres, all arahle land, and kept in a high state of cultivation. Nu- 
merous private residences dot the hills overlooking the river. The station- 
buildings are of frame and almost endjowered in shade trees, are cool and 
pleasant in the warmest weather. A large business is d(mc in i'reight and 
carrying milk from this point. C. G. Poulson and Jos. H. Huddle own large 
farms and have good buildings, with every modern convenience connected with 

The old town of Marcus Hook is within ten minutes walk of Linwo(jd sta- 
tion, on the Delaware river. Next to Chester, Marcus Hook appears to be the 
oldest town in Pennsylvania. It was erected into a market town by Penn in 
1701, by letters patent under the name of Chichester, and empowered to hold 
a weekly market and fair. "Hook," as it is usually called, is quite e(jual to 
Chester as an eligible site for manufactories, if not superior. The river chan- 
nel is nearer the shore, as well as deeper and broader, and the place ha.s not 
been shut off' from the ocean by ice at any time for half a century. The Gov- 
ernment piers are in the river here, and it is the winter harlxir f(ir vessels, as 
in severe weather the river above this point is generally l)l()cked with ice. 
Probably the accident of a few enteriirising men locating themselves at Ches- 
ter between 1S40 and 1850, fixed that as the city instead (jf Marcus Hook. Be- 
fore 1830 the two places were rivals in inertness and obscurity, surprised occa- 
ijionally by the erection of a new dwelling on the ruins of one rotted down. With- 
in a few years Marcus Hook has made some spasmodic efforts to imitate her more 
fortunate sister, and unless the old inhabitants succeed in preventing the in- 
flux of energy from al)road, a dozen years more will probably develop the na- 
tural advantages of the place, and make it again the rival of Chester. In 
1870 the pojudation of the i)lace was (100, and is about 750 at the i)resent time. 
During the shad and herring fishing season, large numbers of these fish are 
caiighl in the Delaware river, and Marcus Hook is the i)rincipal market from 
wiiieli they are s()ld to traders and consumers. Marcus Hook is a ])retty little 
town in summer lime, (he beautiful sliade trt'cs wliicli lint' some of the streets, 
adding greatly to its beauty. The town lias three ciiurcbes, l\\v JSaiitist, l\pis- 
copal, and Methodist denominations all being represented, and eai'li iiaving a 
Ileal edilice for holding public worship. 

The inincipal business house of the ]>laee is Ihe sl(U'e of .1. K. (ireen, 
doing a regular country store business, and carrying a heavy stock of goods. 
Tliei\' are two hotels in Marcus Hook, the most important and best ajipointed 
of which, is the Spread Kagle Hotel, kcjit by .John II. Kerlin. Mr. Kerlin 
took possi'ssion of this hotel the first ol' the year, and has refilled and furnisiied 
it in sph'iidid slyh'. The hotel is the stopping place lor s]iorlsnun from IMiila- 
delphia, Wilmingloii and ( 'hester, who come to ihe place in search of game. 
In this respect the place oilers sii|perior indiieemeuls, being adjaeeiil to the bi'sl 


perch fishing, duck, reed and rail bird, woodcock and snipe grounds on the 
Dehiware, and the situation is not excelk'd by any otiier along tlie river. The 
bar of the Spread P>agle is always supplied witli tlu' Iks! brands ol' cigars, 
wines, ales and liquors, and the table is furnished with the very best tlie mar- 
ket atlbrds. 


This station is located in the midst of a rich farming district, and is 1S| 
miles from IMiiiadelpbia. It is the first station reached aftt'r crossing the line 
l)etween T'ennsylvania and ])c]a\varc. 'I'lie farms in llir vicinily nl' ( 'l,-iy iiinnt 
are large, licli and iiroduclive, and iiinsi of llcin bav»' lintlcr and milk d.iirics 
connectc(l wilii them. Tlie station liuilding is of frame, and its siirroinnlings 
are charming. Tiieri' is a beautiful liowei- gaideu in front, and in the ladies' 
waiting room plants ami lloweis of various s]ieeies ai'e cultivated in vases and 
pots the season round. Claymoutis the greatest milk station on the 1*. W. iV 
B. Road, and in the summer season as high as .i,000 (juarls are sliipped fiom 
iiere daily to Philadelidiia. The niajority of the farmers keep milk dairii-s, 
althougli tliere are several large butter dairy farms here also. Tliose shipi)ing 
milk from this station, aiv ( u-o. Thompson, S. W. Ilanby, -J. K. Ilanby, W. 
IJird, .J. Reiks, W. JI. Veale, Robt. .Vrmstroug, Isaac N. (irubb, J. M. ('. 
Prince, T. G. Primrose, A. (r. Forwood, J. S. Pi'tite, W R. Ennis, F. l-'oid and 
Lot Cloud. The country aI)out Claymont and the river and landscaiie scenery 
is as line as can l)c found anywhere in a day's travel. 


Holly Oak station is a depot for the rece})tion of nulk and other freight. The 
company have no buildings of any account here, and no ticket or telegraph of- 
fices as at other stations, and very few passengers are carried from this iioinl. 
To the north and west there is a large tract of highly productive land, and nest- 
ling deep among fruit orchards and shade trees are cond'ortable looking farm 
houses and barns, waiting to be tilled with the crojjs of the new harvest. .los. 
Forwood is the owner of a large farm, with nujdern farm buildings, about a 
nnle fVom the station. Another large and well kept farm is that of J. C. Hay- 
wood, known as the " HoUyoak Farm," froiu which the station takes its name, 
and contains about 300 acres. Other prominent farms are those of J. Sharpe, Jr., B. 
Carr, Wm. P]ulij)s, J. Langhead, Wm. P. Lodge, A. Perkins, and ('. Perkins. 


This station is located in a rich agricultural district, and is twenty-two miles 
from Philadelphia and five from Wilmington. The station building of the 
Rail Road Company is a fine structure, ^nd has every convenience — ticket 
ofJice, telegraph office, waiting rooms, &c. The locality is not surpassed by anv 
other for healthfulness and beauty of landscape scenery. The DelaAvare, with 
its boats passing and repassing, is plainly seen only a few hundred yards rlis- 
tant. In this vicinity are some of tlie linest lands in the State of Delaware. 



This station takes its name from the Kdgemoor Iron Works, which are located 
about half a mile distant. They manufacture plate iron for ships, and are very 
extensive, covering four acres of ground and giving employment to about loO 
hands. The country here presents the appearance of a beautiful garden or 
lawn, and like the other portions of the peninsula along this road, is unusually 
rich and productive, immense crops of grain being raised every season. 

The station building here is probably the finest on the road south of Kidley 
Park. It is built of a peculiar dark stone — almost black — and the interior is 
tinished in polished hard woods. It has a ticket and telegraph office, in charge 
of an efficient person. This is the last station on the road before reaching the 
city of Wilmington, being situated three miles from the latter place. Some of 
the local and freight trains stop at the Brandywine creek, about a mile from the 
depot at Wilmington, where a platform and freight offices have been erected to 
accommodate some of the large industrial and business establishments in that 
vicinity. It is the design of the Comj)any to erect here, at no distant day, 
modern and improved station buildings similar to those at other points on the 
road. The station is to be known l)y the name of Brandywine. 


This is the largest and most important way-city or town on tiie line of tlie P. W. 
& B. E. R. It is twenty-seven miles from Philadelphia, and thougli young as 
a city, is one of the oldest towns in the United States. Its present population is 
a little over 30,000. The city has grown up wonderfully within the past twenty 
years. It was first chartered as a city Ijy George II, in 1739, and it then con- 
tained about one hundred and twenty houses, with a population of six hundred 
persons. During the same year the foundation of ship-building, afterwards 
carried on extensively, was laid by the construction of the brig " Wilmington," 
which was also the pioneer of the foreign trade of the port. In 180'J Wilming- 
ton was chartered by the State Legislature as the " Borough" of Wilmington, 
and in 18o2 was incorporated as the "city " of Wilmington, at wliich time its 
l)opulation was about seven thousand. Tliis was probal)ly the proudest day of 
its history. Better still, it was the beginning of a new era of prosperity, and a 
more rapid growth in population, wealth, and all that makes a city or a pt'opie. 

In 1837 the city was connected witli Piiiladelphia and Baltimore l)y the 
present line of rail road — The P. W. & 15. K. K. This rt)ad is the principal 
road terminating in the city, and has greatly ])roinott'd its prosperity by in- 
creasing its liuililing facilities, deveioiiing its nKinuracturiug establishments, 
furnishing additional outlets for tiu' agricultural dislrids thai surroiunl it, and 
rendering it easily accessible from the two great I'ilics on cillur si(k — Philadid- 
])hia and Baltimore. But the great souni' of the growth and prosperity of 
Wilmington is her manufaclurii's.' TIh'si' are the iiuiinspring of business — 
the grand streams of wealth and jKipulatiou, and the rail roads are chii'Hy bene- 
ticial in proportion as they furnish cheap and rapid transportation for the pro- 
ducts and raw materials of tlicsi'. The manufactures of Wilniinglon are the 
noblest characterislic of the place, and are Justly the piidi' of the citizens. 
TIu'V ai'c (he loundalion on which all else is built, and thcv have i\icreased 


wonderfully within the past twenty-live years. From the period of their in- 
trodnction, especially the leading hranches — iron, nioroeco, carriage making, 
and ship building — dates the growth of Wilmington. 

Few cities in our country are as favorably located as Wilmington, whether 
considered in reference to beauty of situation, healthfulness of climate, business 
facilities, or the productiveness of the surrounding country. It has a beautiful 
site, and compares favorably with any of the most beautiful towns in this wide 
and favored land. It is situated so high that it conuuands a view of a wide ex- 
tent of country, deliglitful and fertile in the highest degree, surrounded by a 
chain of hills descending on either hand by easy grades, from the body of the 
town to the Christiana and Brandywine, that flow gently by her sides and seem 
to hang there in loojjs and waves like a silver girdle. Tlie broad and majestic 
Delaware rolls at her feet, glistening in the smdighl like a sheen of diamonds, 
and as far as the eye can reach stretches a magnificent panoi-ama of hills, wood- 
lands, lawns, meadows, and in their season, waving fields of grass and grain, 
beautiful in their mantle of green, or rich with the golden hues of early har- 
vest, everywhere relieved and made more attractive by the farm-house, the 
villa, and the heaven-pointing spire. There are few American cities that ofi'er 
in scenery a finer combination of town and country, nature and art, than is 
found in some of the views of Wilmington and the surrounding region, as seen 
from the elevated points of the town and tlie adjoining hills. The views from 
the Custom House, the ni)per Reservoir, the vicinity of tlie Alms House, and 
Elliott's hill, are especially fine. 

As might be expected, from tlie elevated situation and pure air, from the 
self-draining character of the surface, from the general cleanliness of the peo- 
ple, Wilmington is one of the healthiest cities on the Western Continent. The 
plan of the city is excellent, and it is laid out in the form of a square, the 
streets running at right angles like those of Philadeljjhia. The main business 
street of the city is Market, extending from the Brandywine to the Christiana. 
The stores and business houses are fully equal to those of any city in the world. 
The streets, for the most jiart, are wide, and the dwelling houses are large and 
roomy and principally built of brick. 

The natural resources of the place are nnexcelled. Surrounded by a region 
that is characterized by great beauty and fertility, it abounds in every ]irodnet 
that is found in the temperate portions of our country, and furnishes one of the 
best markets in the land, especially in meats and vegetables. Situated midway 
between the commercial and the political cajiitals of the country, New York 
and Washington, at the head of two fine bays, enclosing a peninsida that is to 
be the garden of the Atlantic coast, having a broad, deep river at its eastern 
door, oflering one of the best inland harbors in the world," with two rivers 
crossing its front and runningalong its sides, afTtirding excellent navigation and 
facilities for ship-liuilding, adding greatly to the beauty of the jdace, it has one 
of the most beautiful and healthful sites to be found in the United States. 

The leading business interests of Wilmington are trade and manufacturies, 
being the greatest manufocturing city of its size in the country. The mercan- 
tile interest is respectalile in numliers and wealth, though it suffers greatly in 
buying goods at second hand instead of going directly to the fountain head. 


The city is diviiK'd im<» ten wards, l-ulIi ward lieing n.'i)r«.'si.'uted in councils 
by two representatives elei-ted by the people annually. The President of the 
city council is elected biennially, and the Mayor of the city every three years. 
The police arrangements are good, the city being dividetl into six districts, and 
a force of some twenty-tive officei"s employed on duty in preserving peace and 
order, and protecting property and life from the depredations of lawless per- 
sons. The law-breakers of Wilmington are subject to the whipping post and 
pillory, and it" tlie ofiense be ever so small the otiender smarts for it under the 
lash at New Castle, the county-seat of New Castle county. Probably this fact 
accounts for ^VilnHugton being a comparatively peaceful and (piiet city ; con- 
sidering the natiu-e of her population, aditlerent opinion might beexi)ressed by 
a stranger. For a city with the great mass of its population a working class of 
people, it is a very orderly city, and has been long considered so. 

Tliere are eight Fire Companies, all fidly eijuipped and in splenilid working 
trim, with engines and hose carriages of the finest build. The names of the 
ditlerent companies are the Friendship, Reliance, Delaware, Plxi nix. Water 
Witch, Wasiiington, Fame Hose, and Wecacoe. The water works.. I tlie city 
are sufficient to sui>i>ly the inhabitants for years to come. They were erecte<l 
in 1827. The old l)asin is between Market and King streets, and between 10th 
and 11th streets, and a new basin has since been erected near the same place. 

The i>ul)lic schools of Wilmington have a high reputation for thoroughness 
and efficiency, and in this respect are not excelled by those of any city in the 
Fnited States. The board of educatinii is cdmitosed of gentlemen of learning 
and ability, who do all in their power to furnisli the schools with all necessary 
educational a})pliances that will in any way add to the stock of information, or 
facilitate llu' education of the young. There are upwards of tweiUy public 
schools, and about a do/.en private sciinols in \\'ilmingtou. These last namecl 
institutions are mostly conducted on a higher scale of learning, and are for ed- 
ucating young men and boys for College, and also for business and the duties of 
life. Sketches and histories, witii the names of the principals of the most im- 
portant of these private .\cademies will be found on another page. The Post 
Office, wliicii nccuiiies nue (it' llic liiiesl pulilic luiildiugs in liie <'ily. is l.xaled 
at the ciirner (if Sixlii and Kiim sliccls. and it li:i- facilities and ((luvenieuces 
tur a city wilii a pdpulalinn dl' lOd.OdO. Tin re are nine newspajiers in the 
city, three dailies and six weeklies. The dailv pultlicatious are the Coiiinicrcidl 
<ti((I Ercri/ Erniiiifi, Drlaintir Hi'inililifKii. and Ihlmnirr (Utzrftc. The weeklies 
are Dchtimrc Trihimc, Dfliunin Sfni,' .lunnnil, Jhlinriirc <i<i~iltc, IMtiinirr /?(■- 
luihliciin, Ai1ri-i-fisri\ -And \V<iii.-<l(li. 'Plusc jdiiruals nearly all have good circu- 
lations and are well patronized. The /•,''•(/•(/ Knniiiq mid ('(ninnrrridl. w two 
cent journal, is tin- largest ciniilaled |i:ip(i- in the eitv. It also pidilishes a 
weekly, and li:is a <|ilemli(l jdli :in(l liddk dcparl uieut ednue(Ic(l with the priiu- 
ing lidusc al 'Phird and M.irkct -li((l>. 

l'"ew cities (if the si/.e nt' W'i Jmin^ldn cnjdx siuh triinspdrl.ilidU fa.alities. 
I'esides ihc \\ W. A: 15., there ari> sevi'ral other rail roads here. The city is 
the Sdulhcrn leirninus of the Wiiminglon A- IJeading Pail Poad. w ilh ihc de]>ot 
at the corner of I'^ront and Madison streets. The Wilnungtou iV Western Rail 
Road also ends here, and has its <Iei)ol and ollices at Market and Water streets. 
The iHlawar.' l.'aii K'.iad, which is Ica-ed l.y ihc P. W. i^ P. Comp:iny, gives 


the city (jiiiok and cheap trans|iortatioii with almost every important town in 
the .State of Dehiware. The Wilminf,'ton City Hail way extends from French 
street along Front to Market, ahmg Market to thel>ran<lywine, the whole lenf^th 
of the city, charging seven cents a ride. There are also two steamship lines 
plying their steamers between ^Vilmington, Chester, and Philadelphia, ami one 
line running steamers every otiier day between \Vilmingt<jn and New York, 
carrying freight and passengers. 

The depot and other bnildings of the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore 
Kail Road, occupies the squares between Third and f\)urth, and Pine and 
Spruce streets. The main building of the depot contains the ticket office, tele- 
graph (jfiice, gents' and ladies' waiting rof)ms, and the dining rooms. Many of 
the express trains from New York to Washington, and the reverse, stop here to 
give the passengers aboard the time and opportunity to get their meals. The 
dining room is located near the train, and the passengers can .secure a good 
meal without any inconvenience whatever. Every luxury of the seascm isjiro- 
vided here at a rea-sonable i)rice. The baggage room and the rooms for the 
conductors, are a separate building. It is the design of the Companv to erect 
a (irand Union Depot here in a few years, as the, present one hits become inade- 
(piate for the business of the road at this point, and is not at all in keeping with 
the tine modern depot buildings at other points. LiLst year, (1876,) a large and 
well-appointed Kound-house w:is erected here, with stalls for 20 locomotives. 
It is the largest on the rf>ad, an illustration of which is given on the following 
page. The machine shops of the Comi)any are located at Wilmington, a .scjuare 
from the depot, at which most of the handsome cars and fine locomotives now 
needed by the road are made. These works have been added to from time t<j 
time, an<l now cover over two acres of ground and give emi)]oyment to about 
sixty workmen. Formerly much of the rolling stock used bv the road was 
made at other establishments, but the works being enlarged are now almost 
sufficient to furnish all the new cars and locomotives wanted on the road, lie- 
sides doing all the repairing, painting and rebuilding. The cars and locomo- 
tives emanating from these works are not surpassed in strength and beaut v bv 
those of any other establishment on the continent. The locomotives, especially, 
are beauties, and the mountings aliout them shine like silver and cold. The 
cars are indeed luxurious, and the seats in them have niic high backs and are 
made with an eye to comfort and convenience, ami not like some cars, with 
seats crowded so close together that there is scarcely room t(» get njt or sit down 
comfortably. In connectiofi with Ihe rail roads of AVilmington, we will men- 
tion the "Express" facilities of the place. There an- four Express Companies 
here: Adams' Express Company, office 519 Market street ; Taggart Express, 
between Wilmington and Philadelphia, office 2'20 French street, near depot ; 
Wilmington Transfer and Baggage Express Company, and the ( 'entral Express 
Company. This latter Company ship from Wilmington to Reading, and to 
intermediate points on the W. & R. R. I!. Adams' Express Companv are their 
agents in Wilmington. 

There are several incorjxjrated Life and Fire Insurance Companies in ^Vil- 
mington, and also four incorporated banks. The Delaware Mutual Life In- 
surance Company has its office at f)t)S Market street. Farmers' Mutual Insur- 
ance Company, Soo Market street ; New Castle County Mutual, til2 Market 


street. The First National Bank of Wilmington is located at Fifth and Mar- 
ket streets ; National Bank of Wilmington and Brandywine, Second and 
Market streets; Union National Bank of Wilmington, 505 ]\Iarket street; Na- 
tional Bank of Delaware, Sixtli and Market streets; Farmers' Bank of Dela- 
ware, Third and Market ; Artizans' Saving Bank, 502 Market street ; Wilming- 
ton Saving Fnnd Society, Eighth and Market streets. The Wilmington Coal 
Gas Company is another large corporation of the city, with a capital of $400,- 
000. It was inc(jrporated in 1S52, and the works are at present located at 
Madison and Reed streets, with ofhce at Third and Shii)ley streets. 

Other structnrcs and buildings of a pnl)lic character in the city are its public 
halls, churches, lil)rarics and charital)le institutions. Masonic Hall, on Mar- 
ket street, is the largest hall in the city, and it also has a large oi)era house at- 
tached, witli seating capacity for 2000 persons. It is occupied the greater part 
of the theatre season by good performing troupes. Odd Fellows' Hall, with 
capacity to seat 750, is at Third and King streets, and Red Men's Hall is ato02 
Market street. The Churches of Wilmington, especially those of the Baptist 
and Methodist denominations, are tlie finest buildings of the city, and are hand- 
some and imposing places of worship. There are five Baptist, nine Methodist, 
seven Presbyterian, eight Episcojial, three Friends, six Catholic, one Unitarian, 
one Lutheran, and six African Churches in the city. This is quite a large 
number of Churches for a population of 30,000, and speaks well for the city in 
this direction. Among the asylums and charitable institutions is the associa- 
tion for Criminal Reform. It was organized in 1808, but not incorporated until 
1869, and now owns a fine large building. The Home for Friendless and Des- 
titute Children is located at Ninth and Adams streets. A worthy institution is 
the Home for Aged Women, organized and conducted solely by women. It is 
located at the corner of Harrison and Gilpin avenues, and was incorporated in 
1855. The " Wilmington Institute," a literary society and library association, 
owns a fine large building at P^ighth and Market streets. They have a large 
room here, containing upwards of 20,000 volumes of the best works on almost 
every subject. All the leading daily and weekly pai)ers of the country are kept 
here on file, and transient strangers in the city are invited to visit the library 
and pass away their leisure time, read their own home paper, or enjoy them- 
selves as they may desire. The two leading Cemeteries in which the dead of 
Wilmington are buried, are the Wilmington and Brandywine Cemetery, and 
Riverview Cemetery. 

The above is a brief outline or sketch of the city of Wilmington, and will 
give the reader an idea of the importance and the location of this beautiful 
manufacturing city. To give a descrii)tion of the city and its institutions, ad- 
vantages, pul)lic buildings and industries, in detail, would fill a good-sized 
volume, and take up more space than we have at our disi>osal. 



The most iiii]»()rt;int nianur:ictiires of Wiliiiinii^toii aiv ( "arria.i^v-iiiakint;, 
Sirn)-I(iiililiii<;-, lidii Maniitactiires, Moruct'o, ('ottdii, l'"liiiir and I'ajnr Maiiii- 
I'ailiiic Next ft) Ni'W Ilavou, \Viliiiiii.i;ton is tlio greatest carriayo iiiaiiiil'actiir- 
iiii; (ilv in tlio Uiiiti'd States, and llie linsiness lias grown to sueli projxntions 
here, and attained sneli |)erreolion, as to make \Vilmingtoii earriages famons all 
over lln' eounlry. ^'el, like most great enterjirisi^'s, it liad its small heginning, 
as well as itsi)rogress and nltimate triiimpli. It was eommeneed al)ont tlie year 
1S4'_*, there l)eing hnt three small slioi)s here at this time, doing little Imt re- 
pairing. iMi'. John Mi'ii'it'k and ,i co-operative company were the lirst to iii- 
trodiKt' carriage' nia]<ing in AN'ilminglon on a large scale, in tlu- year 1S47. 
l-'rom tills time I'orlli the snci'ess of the industry was assured, eslahlishmeiils 
eoiit inning to ninltii>ly from year to year, until it assiiined the largest propor- 
tions. At [iresent there are ahout fifteen carriage estahlishments in Wilming- 
ton, liirning out ahoiit 3,000 carriages annually, worth a million dollars, and 
giving employment to about 300 liands. Almost every style of carriage in use 
in this conntrv is made here, irom the idain market wagon to the light and ele- 
gant plueton. Such, in brief, has Iieen the progress of the business from its 
origin to the present time. Beginning as a small rill, it has swelled to the pro- 
portions oi' a mighty stream, making rich numerous tirms, and reaching aiul 
hiessiiig many families with well-jjaid labor. It is the oi)inion of good judges 
that if the war had not interposed, \Vilniington would now be turning out 
KlO.OOO carriages per annum. As it is the number is large, and they can be 
I'onnd in all the i)rinci)ial cities of the United Slates. Carriage making has be- 
come an institution of Wilmington, and a marked characteristic of the jdace. 
Siii|>-linilding, another important industry, had its heginning in Wilmington in 
the year I73'.»-10. The first shij) built was a hrig named "The Wilmington." 
Ill the vear ITS'.) there were some twiMity vessi'ls in foix'ign trade from this point. 
.\l present it is e^arried on here principally through the large' estahlishiiicnl ol 
the Harlan & IloUingsworth Company, The' .lackson Sharp Com]iany, and 
Pusey, Jones iV ("ompany. The m;iniifac(iii<' of nioroe'e'o is also carried on 
(piite e.\te'iisi vely in this city. 

The growth of Wilmingtem in commercial importance has been, perhaps, as 
remarkahle' and rapid as thai of any other eastern city. Its admirable geo- 
grapliic;ii location, with re'fe'rence' to water ami railroail transportation, and its 
central iiosition, gi ve to it gre'at natural advantages as a dislrilniting point, 
while its convenience of acce'ss to the source' of snpplie's, rellde'i's it olU' of the 
most desirahle ])oints in the riiiled Slates for all branches of manufacturing 
business. The jirogress of tlu' city within the past twenty or thirty ye'ars has 
been marked by very much the same' spirit of enterprise which has character- 
ized many western cities, whexse giant strides towards eonunereial inijiortanee 


have been matters of astonishment to the world, with this important discri mi- 
nation in favor of Wihnington, that its career has been characterized by 'a suffi- 
ciently conservative policy to insure safety in each step of progress. With a 
view to j)roperly represent the commercial interests of the place, we give in 
the following pages brief accounts of several branches of trade in the city, to- 
gether with sketches of a numlier of .business and manufacturing establishments 
which are regarded as the leading representative houses of the i)lace. 


Tliis is one of the oldest enterjjriscs and business establishments in Wilming- 
ton, and its history during the one hundred and three years of its successful 
existence, forms a part of the history of the city itself. The present proprie- 
tors are Messrs. George W. Bush & Son, and their extensive premises are lo- 
cated at French street wharf. The business was founded in the year 1774, by 
]\lr. Sanuiel Uusli, wlio commenced the first freigbting line between Wilmington 
and P]iiladel}>hia, together with a general merchandising Inisiness, at the exact 
location now occupied — foot of French street. This is truly remarkable and of 
rare occurrence, to see a business now in the hands of the fourth generation of 
the same family, occupying tiie same location and carrying on the same liusi- 
ness as established over a century ago. The founder of the business, Mr. 
Sanniel Bush, was succeeded by his sons, David and George Bush, who added 
the sale of coal to their other business. On the death of Geo. Bush, the busi- 
ness was continued by Geo. W. Bush, the present senior partner, who estab- 
lished the tirst successful steam freight line running from Wilmington. 

Both tlie freight and coal l)usiness of tlie firm have largely increased with 
the progress and growth of the city, the former recjuiring a steam i)ropeller to 
be nm from each end of the line daily, and carrying freight not only for 
Wilmington, but for various points on the railroads terminating at Wilming- 
ton. The coal trade of Messrs Bush & Son is at jjresent about 50,000 tons an- 
nually. They make it a point to sell the best (jualities of coal, and receive the 
Shenandoah and Anthracite coals from the Ellanyavan, Mahonoy City, and 
other special collieries of the Philadelphia & Reading Coal and Iron Company, 
of which Company they are sole agents for Wilmington, as well as of the 
Atlantic and (ieorge's Creek, Cumberland and Kittanning Company's Pennsyl- 
vania Bituminous coals. 

The iireniises, including the yards, wharves, warehouses, offices, etc., cover 
an entire square, and end)race the block extending from French to King streets, 
and from Water street to Christiana creek. The freight storehouses are large 
and convenient for iiandling and delivering goods, and their self-screening bins 
for coal are superior to anytliiug in Wilmingt(jn for convenience in unloading 
boats and barges, and for loading wagons. They also use patent delivering 
wagons, wliich, l)v an ingenious arrangement, delivers the coal in cellars of 
l)atrous without dirt or dust. Mr. Geo. W. Iiush is also President and owns 
considerable stock in the " Wilmington Steamshi[) Company," whose steamers 
ply between Wilmingt(jn and New York. The Vice President is Mr. K. T. 
Warner. The line is known as the " Electric," and runs tri-weekly, first-class 
steamers, carrying freight, and has added largely to the business facilities of 
Wilmington and other cities and towns on the line. 

The ai)ove is a brief outline of the history of the oldest leading house in the 
State of Delaware. It shows an honorable record reaching l)ack over a century 
of years, and is one of the very few instances in this country, though common 
enougb in Europe, where the father has been succeeded l)y the sons, and the 
busiuess conducted with vigor and success. The present proprietors are worthy 
representatives of the sturdy stock which has won for the merchants of our 


large cities such an en\'ia1)le reputation. This is one of the many prosperous 
business houses wliicli has been instiiuiiental in establisliing the rei)Utiition of 
Wilmington as a great mauufacturiug city. Tlie Messrs. Bush are itlentitied 
witli almost every improvement in the interest of the city, and their business 
enteri)rise itself lias been the means of developing many advantages, by ottering 
unusual and cheap facilities for transacting business, and shipping goods from 
one jKiint to another at cheap rates of freight. 


Among the successful firms engaged in the manufacture of morocco in AVil- 
mington, is the comjiany known as "The John G. Baker Co.," which began 
operations as an individual enterprise in 1S67, on Fifth street below Spruce, 
their present location. The establishment of the comj)any has been enhirged 
from time to time, until it is now five stories high, witii the following dimen- 
sions: Length on Fifth street, IK) feet; breadth, 'io feet; wing running back 
to Lord street, 148 by 28, and fronting thereon, ol by oH. Tlie ditlerent de- 
partments and their sizes are as follows : Boiler room, 24 by l(i ; slating room, 
80 by 16; coloring house, 30 by 24; store and office, 60 by 25; two finishing 
rooms, each 55 by 24, and a third one, 80 by 28 ; one shaving and sewing room, 
55 by 24; one beam house, 110 by 24; tan house, 148 by 28; steam drying 
room, 148 by 28; stock room, 35 'by 28; two drying lofts 110 by 24, and two 
other drying lofts, each 154 by 28. It will be seen from the foregoing that 
there are about 35,000 s(piare feet of room in daily use. 

The motive power of the establishment consists of a thirty horse-power en- 
gine, supplied with steam by a sixty horse-i)ower tubular boiler. This boiler 
also furnishes the steam for heating the building in cold weather, by the aid of 
pipes which permeate every part of the establishment. The drying rooms 
already noted are furnished with heatiiig i>ipes, which in dull, wet weather, fa- 
cilitates tlie drying process, and no interruption occurs from this cause. 

About 80 liands are employed, and the weekly pay-roll aggregates upwards of 
$800. The only i)art of the work on wiiicli females can be employed with ad- 
vantage is in sewing togctiier the skins. Four girls operating a like number of 
sewing machines are emj)loyed. The skins priucijially come i'roiu jNIexico, are 
received ili a dry slate in bales of one hundred jiounds. The company manu- 
factures about 500 skins per day, and turn out the finest quality of morocco. 
After going through a long process of tanning, drying and coloring, the skins 
are taken to the stock room, where they are assorted into the various lines of 
goods for which they are suited, such as lVbl)les, Brush Grain, Oil Boot, 
French Morocco, Maroon Boot Legs, (ilazed Kid, or any other kin<l of finish 
that may be in <leniiind. 

This is bv far tiie largest morocco m;inufacturing establishment in Wilming- 
ton, though it was stnrted in a modest way in 181)7, by Mr. John G. liaker, and 
at that time manufacturing but 50 skins jier day. In April 1S73, the conct'rn 
became merged in the .John (i. Baker Compauy, with Mr. Baker as Bresiileiit, 
and('.W.( iowert, as Secretary and Treasurer. Mr. Baker's interest in the com j>any 
aggregates upwards of ii^l00,0OO, yet he commenced the business on a capital of 
less tiian $2,000. lie is not only one of Wilmington's great manufacturers, but 
also one of lier most useful and popular citizens. He is largely interested in 
the progress and development of the city, and has occupied various ]iositions of 
honor .uid trust in the gift of her citizens. He is yet a middle agid mim and 
is a true type of the iieisevi'ring and successful business man of wiii<'h Ainei-ic;i 
furnishes so many notable examples. Besides the manufactory and salesrooms 
in Wiiiniiigton, the company have a large salesroom at 445 N. Third street, 
Pliiliulelpbia, from which the manufactured morocco is shipped to almost every 
country on the globe. 


The c;irriage mauul'acloiy of Messrs. McLear tV Kendall, located at the cor- 
iieiir of Ninth and King streets, is the most extensive and has tlie largest 
buildings of any similar establishment in Wilmington. It was erected here in 


1863-64, by Mv. John Merrick, and ])uirliased by tlie present firm in the year 
1866. PrevicMis to this Messrs. McLear t^- Kendall occupied tlie huge cj'irriage 
manufactory at Set'()nd and French streets for a short time, succeedini;' Mr. 
Merrick here also. When tliey removed to tiieir jiresent commodious works 
they soUl tlie establishment at Second and French streets, to Mr. .lolui Green, 
who still occujiies it. 

Tiie main structure of the works at Ninth and King streets is 218 feet long, 
99 feet wide at one end and 77 feet at the other end. The different de])artments 
end)raced in the manufactory are the wood shop, 90 by 70 feet; prindng, filling 
and rubbing room e(iual to 47 by 90 feet; smith shop, 70 by 218 feet; color 
room 60 by .50 feet ; two paint rooms, each .So by 79 feet; show room 218 by '.if) 
feet; ofiice 20 feet s((uare, and two drying rooms each 20 by 16 feet. In the 
smith shop ai-e twenty-five forges, and all other appliances adapted to this 
branch of work. .Vdjacent to the buildings are numerous sheds filled with 
liunbei-. This firm buy llu'ir bunber in large quantities direct from the manu- 
facturers, and are [)articular in its selection and careful to have it thoroughly 
seasoned before using. They also have a separate store-room for their axles, 
springs, and other articles of hardware that they purchase by the ((uantity. 
One of the main features is the thorough system noticeable throughout the 
whole establishment. Each department has its foreman or manager, and the 
most seemingly imimportant i)art or portion of a wagon is critically examined 
before being adjusted to its i)lace. The number of employes here usually 
ranges from one hundred to one huuflred and fifty. The firm make about forty 
finished vehicles per week, or nearly 2(100 per year. Including buildings, 
they employ a working capital of nearly S200,()00 annually, consiune $140,000 
worth of raw material, and tlispense about $100,000 to their diflerent employes 
at the same time. 

They also have a repository here, containing specimens of their finished 
woik. These are not surpassed by those of any maker in the country, and are 
not only strong and durahle, but are also made with an eye to beauty and sym- 
metry. The carriages of this firm go to almost every part of the United States 
and even to foreign countries. They have a manufactory and repcwitory at 
Nos. 138 and 140 North Broad street, Philadelphia, and repositories atCharle.s- 
town, 8. ('., and Savannah, (la., with an extensive stock in each. Messrs. Mc- 
Lear & Kendall make almost every kind of cai-riage known, and all the newest 
styles. These, asstated above, are celebrated throughout the Union forstrength, 
durability and cheapness. Their manufactory at Wilmington is thoroughly 
systemized, and contains all the latest improved machines in use, which ma- 
chinery is run by a thirty-horse power steam engine. This firm was the first 
to introduce steam power in tlie manufacture of carriages in Wilmington, which 
they did in 1864. Those run by steam are the machines for sawing out, turn- 
ing and mortising hubs, for tenoning, retenoning, throating out, facing and 
tapering the spokes, circular and gig saws, planing and sanding machines, 
boring machines, &c. l^roljalily there is no better equipped carriage manufac- 
tory in the country than that of McLear & Kendall. 

The members of tlie firm, it is useless to say, are progressive and enterpris- 
ing, and they are also gentlemen of acknowledged integrity and ability, well 
and favorably known in the leading business circles of Wilmington and other 
large cities of the Union. Both members of the firm commenced their business 
careers in Wilmington in a very modest and unpretending way, and by remark- 
al)le push and energy, have raised themselves to their present high position in 
the community. Henry C. McLear was born in Wilmington in 1838, and 
learned the carriage making business liere, and afterwards worked as journey- 
man with three or four different establishments. Casper Kendall was l)orn in 
Chester county. Pa., in 183(i, came to Wilmington in lSo2, learned the harness 
trade of George Mc< 'orkle, and carried it on by himself for several years at 
Third and King streets, previous to entering into partnership with Mr. Mc- 
Lear in the then small business, which has finally developed into one of the 
largest, most popular and successful carriage firms in the United States. 



Tlit'su Wfll-kiiowii s(i;i[> wiirks, of wliicli Messrs. jMoort- A: Urotlu-r iirc jiro- 
prietors, arc tlie largest (if their kiinl in \Vilinin.ifton, and are located at tiie cor- 
ner of Tiiird and Orange streets. Tlic large factory is 100 liy 150 feet, and has 
a large store-room and oHicc in front. The works arc also the oldest in the 
conntry, and were founded alxmt the year ISl-") l)y Adams & Cochran, and 
after heing in one or two other hands, jtassed into the j)osscssion of the present 
proprietors in the year 1S07. The most improved maciiinery is nsed in every 
department of the factory, some of which is of novel constrnction and calcnlated 
on a gigantic scale. The variety of the productions cover every dcsiralile 
quality of laundry soap, family and toilet soajjs, candles, starch, lye and sal- 
soda. The firm also deal in washing blue, adamantine candles and imported 
castile soaj). The ])ower of these works is steam, and the soap presses, and in 
fact everything is adajited to a large volume of l)usiness. The ample means of 
the Messrs. Moore enahies them to carry a large stock of manufactured arliciis 
seasoned and ready ibr shiiiment. The store and oflice are commodious, so that 
all orders can he tilled with the utmost dispatch. The pr(»sperity of tlie house 
shows that their eti()rts are aiipreciated. 

These works have been making steady progress from year to year, and have 
been added to from time to time, mitil to-day they stand unrivaled in size and 
importance in the State of Delaware. The home trade of the house is very 
heavy, while the custom outside reaches over Delaware, Maryland and several 
other States. The gentlemen of the firm are highly esteemed in the comnni- 
nity for their straightforward business habits. 


Messrs. lloliinson <X: Hi'olher, whose manufactory and warerooms are located 
at the foot of Market street, ni'ar the Christiana, ai'c considered to be one of 
Wilmington's leading and important carri;ige manufacturing firms. Both mem- 
bers of the firm are natives of Wilmington, and have l)een identified with 
the carriage business since boyhood, though the present pai'tnershii) was not 
formed tnitil the year 1864. They first connncnced business on Front street, 
and after two years removed to the old l<^laglor biuldiug at Seventh and Ship- 
ley streets, and did a good business here until the jiremises were desli-oyi-d by 
fire, on May 4th, ISO',). They were not at all discouraged l)y this calamity, 
however, and at once rented the large lnulding at Kovnth and Walnut streets, 
which they occujtied until they liuilt their present conunodious factory, when 
they removed to it about the beginning of the year lS7o. The new establish- 
ment is of brick, 75 feet front on Market street by "200 feet deep, and two-stories 
liigh. The first Hoor is used as a wood-sho)) room, blacksnnth shop and re- 
pository. The second story is devoted to the painting, triunning and furnish- 
ing of the carriages. They em))loy about forty skilled mechanics in all de- 
partments, and tiu'ii out al)out three hundred finished vehicles annually. 
They nud<c any kind of carriage to order, and also have a tine stock of manu- 
factured vehicles on hand in the warerooms. Tlu^y make a specialty of tine 
family carriages, sucii as phaetons, rot'kaways, and also of light buggies, both 
shifting and standing tops. Some of the family carriages are gotten u|) in the 
most elahorate mtunier, upholstered in line cloth, hice, itc, with gilt mountings. 
Vi'hicles made l)y the Mi'ssrs. Robinson are to lie st'cn on the streets of most of 
the principal cities of the South and West, and in ui'arly all the large cities of 
tlu' Uniled States. All carriage's made at these works are warranted for a 
special term of st-rvice, and have always givi'U complete satisfaction. The pro- 
prietors take great pride in making carriages to order to suit the dillei-cnt 
tastes of tiieir customers, and anything that nughl Ik.' called a carriage, is 
either found at, or will lie made at llu' manid'aclory. Tlu' individual mendiers 
of the firm aii'tJcorgc C. Uoliinson and Alliert N. Robinson, botii practical 
men, who have k'arned the business under the best advantages, and whose 
wliole stock in trade fifteen years ago, was a comiilete knowK'ilgi' of carriage 
making, and uncon(|nerable energy, honesty and inli'grily. Thcsi' principles 
thorougidy carried out have phu'cd them on the road lo success and fortune. 


Besides their works and repository liere, tlie tirni own a larye rejiositoiv in 
lialtiniore, at No. 5.'] West Fayette street, opjiosite IJarniuii's liotel, in wliiili a 
tine stock of carriages is dis[)layed for tlie inspection tjf customers. 


One of tlie oldest, most solid and substantial business houses of Wilmington, 
is that of Messrs. Ferris & Garrett, located at No. 504 Market street, and the 
business is plumbing, steam and gas fitting. The business was established by 
the jiresent owners about the year 1854, and for twenty-three years they have 
occupied the same site. At the time the business was started an unjjretentious 
frame building occupied the spot on which now stands the large and commo- 
dious four story structure. It has twenty-four feet front f)n Market street, and 
extends back to King street 210 feet. The tirst tioor is divided into three 
different departments, the front part of which is oHice and salesroom. The sec- 
ond tlo<u' is used for storage of gas lixtures, c^c. A numl)er of competent work- 
men are emjjloyed, and every kind of work in the line of the house is executed 
promptly and in a workmanlike manner. The proprietors do not knowingly 
permit any inferior work to emamate from their estal)lishment. They have 
supplied most of the large buildings in Wilmington throughout with steam, 
gas and water lixtures. In their elegant salesroom they have a large and very 
fine stock of gas fixtures to select from, which can be obtained at manufac- 
turers' prices. They do a very large business, and are one of the most success- 
ful and enterprising houses in Wilmington. J'.y strict integrity they have won 
the confidence and esteem of a large circle of acipiaintances, an<l have i)laced 
themselves on the road t(j prosperity and wealth. They have built up a name 
and reputation simjily by their own efforts and energy, and their splendid es- 
tablishment reflects not only credit on themselves and their business, but also 
on the city in which it is located. One remarkable feature of the house is that 
it has never witnessed a removal, but occupies the same location it did nearly a 
quarter of a century ago. The imposing building, and other enlarged facilities 
and improvements have all taken place on the site of the original ])uilding. 


This mon^cco manufactory in Wilmington, is located at 71o West Third 
sti'eet. Mr. Richardson, the ))roj)rietor, first started in business in 185i(, and 
continued successfully up to 18(57, when he retired from active business until 
the spring of 1873. At this time he took possession of a factory on Fourth 
street and remained there one year, when the factory and all the machinery 
were entirely consumed by fire. Mr. Kichardson was not in the least discour- 
aged by this catastrophe, however, and nothing daunted he commenced the 
erection of Jiis new factory at his jiresent location, which, in less than three 
months after the date of the fire, was completed and supplied with machinery 
for mannfiicturing jinrposes, which was at once imt in operation, and has been 
running every day since. 

The new building is 60 feet front (jn Third street by 28 feet deej), and is four 
stories high. The first floor is used as engine room, store room and oflice ; the 
second floor is used as a finishing room, where the morocco is finished after 
going through the other processes. The third and fourth floors are used as 
dyeing rooms. Also have a rear building .'50 by 70 feet and two stories higli, 
used for coloring, dyeing and storage purposes. 

Fmployment is given to about twenty-five hands, whose combine<l labor turn 
out about twenty-five dozen cape goat skins j)er day. The various |>ro<'esses 
which the skins undergo liefore they become an article of trade are interesting, if 
we had the space to explain them. Mr. Kichardson converts annually atjoutone 
hundred thousand goat skins into morocco, manufactui-ed ]irinci])ally from the 
cape skins, and the stock of morocco comprises all the finer and connnon 
grades. The trade extends to nearly all the large lities on the Eastern coast <jf 
the United States, but most is sold in Philadeli>hia and Baltimore, and for 
handsome appearance and (juality their manufactures cannot be surjiassed by 
anv other maker. 



( )ne ol' till' must cclfbraled of Wiliniiigtdii's ciirriagf iiiaiiiit'actories is tliatot' 
Mr. Win. II. W riglit, which is situated at tiie foot of Market street. Like 
most of tlie carriage makers of Wihuington, Mr. Wright started in a modest 
way, working as a journeyman for several years and saving his money until he 
could commence the manufacture of carriages himself. He was horn in Salem 
cMuntv, N. J., in IS.'U, and moved to Smyrna, I»elaware, in 1839. At this hitter 
jilace he learned the traile, aiiiircnticing himself to 15. Benson & Co. for five 
years, from l.S.")0 to 18.")"). lie afterwards worked in ( Jermantown for the inven- 
tor of the ( tcrmantown carriages, and for one or two lirms in ^\'ilmington after 
coming here. In 1S(>"J Mr. Wright i)egan hnsiness in a small estahlishment at 
lOti ( )range street, hut ids Ijusiness grew and prospered at this location and the 
reputation of his carriages hecanie known far and wide. He soon had more 
OJ'ders than he could attend to, and the liusiucss so increased as to warrant his 
removing to the present commodious huilfling in the year ISTl. This is one of 
the largest carriage manufactories in Wilmington, and is huilt almost entirely 
of brick, and is four stories in height. Here, with the comliined skill of some 
sixty practical and eflicient workmen, Mr. Wright is enaliled to manufacture 
carriages of the very hest style, which are sold print'ipally in the south and 
west. His large show rooms contain elegant and sulistautial extension-top 
phaetons, open and closed front rockaways, doul)leJum]) seat rockaways, drags, 
top, no-top, and shifting-top buggies, doctors' huggies, falling-top phietons, etc. 

Few men areas well versed or have as complete a knowledge of every branch 
of the carriage making business as Mr. Wright. He takes a pride in doing 
only superior and work, and he therefore employs none but compe- 
tent workmen, and uses only the best material in the market. It is to such 
establishments like this that Wilmington owes her reiiutation as a great car- 
riage manufacturing city. 


One oi' the most thriving and energetic morocco tirms in ^Vilnliugton, is that 
of Messrs. Taylor & Beadenkopf, at No. 7i;2 West Fourth street. Although 
this firm is not as old in the business as some otheis, yet it is growing rapidly, 
and bids fair, before many years, to rank with some of the older houses. The 
firm have already added to the buildings since first starting, and although the 
manufactory is working to its full capacity, which is twenty-live dozen skins 
per day, the demands of their i)atr(ins kcej) them constantly l)usy filling the or- 
ders. The biiiUliugs are of brick, four stories higli, with basement, and of "L" 
shape. The basement of the main building is used for store room, and the 
first fioor for salesroom and olfice. The first Hoor of the rear building is used 
for tan and beam house, and the other fioors above are devoted to finishing and 
drying the skins. The buildings are heated by steam, and the arrangements 
of the dittiirent departments convenient and complete. 

All kinds of stock are manufactured, just as the wauls of the trade, both 
Spring and Fall, demand. They sell in Maryland, Peuusylvauia, New York, 
New .Jersey. Massachusetts and Connecticut, and other sections of the country, 
and one of the best evidences of the sound management of this firm is the fact 
that during tlic didl times they never stoppi'd oprratious, having a steady de- 
mand always. The mend)ers of the firm .-irc courteous gentlemen to deal with, 
and the rei)utation of their goods is luisiiriiassed. Both are experienced and 
jiractical itien. Mr. John Taylor was formerly junior jtartner for six years witii 
Afessrs. Maltritz iV Haird, of" Wilmington, and' Mr. William Beadenkopf was 
with Mr.,loliu (i. i'.akcr, now jiresident of the "John (i. Baker MoroccoMann- 
facturing Comiiany." These young men have every element of success in their 
favor, and with their jjluck and energy, they arc doubthss on the high road to 
fortune and prosperity. 


Among the imiiortant productions of Wilmiuglon's industrial establishments 
is that eomiuoditv from which comes the "stall' of life" — wheat Hour. There 


are several very extensive llouring mills in Wilmington and vicinity, the 
waters of the Brandy wine and the Christiana ereeks fnrnisliing inexhanstihie 
water i)ower for running tiie same. One of tiie most prominent of these flour 
producing estalilishments arc tlie Stanton Floin- Mills, of wiiicli Messrs. Tatnall 
& Ridiardson are proprietors, located six miles from Wilmington, on the 
Christiana creek. Tiiese mills have become justly celebrated for tlie tine 
brands of flour whicli they manufacture, the ditlerent l)rands being designated 
as Excelsior Fancy, F. F. Fnmily, X. X. Family, Family lOxtra, Red Clay 
Mills, Minguas Extra, and Red Clay Extra. 

Messrs. Tatnall & Richardson have been established in the flour and grain 
business since 18(35. They occui)y a large wareiiouse and salesroom in Wil- 
mington, at the corner of Front and ( )range streets, 'AO feet front by 90 feet 
deep, and three stories high. Here is where. the large sales are conducted, and 
where can lie seen all their l)rands of family flour and a large stock of all kinds 
of grain. Tliey pay the higliest cash price for all kinds of grain of good qual- 
ity ; an inferior article they do not want at any price. The flour is sold at both 
wliolesale and retail, and the trade extends throughout the States of Delaware 
and Maryland, and to a large extent in soutlicrn Pennsylvania. These brands 
of flour alluded to are favorites with families using them, and stand unrivalled 
for their uniform excellence. It requires about '2-")(),00U bushels of wheat per 
year to supply the demands for the ])roduction of these mills. It will thus be 
seen that the Stanton Mills are of the greatest utility to the surrounding 
country, while they contribute very materially to the prosperity of Wilming- 
ton by the large amount of money, which is drawn hither by their extensive 
oi)erations. The close proximity of the warehouse to the tracks of the Phil'a, 
Wilmington A I>altimore Rail Road, and to the waters of the Christiana, gives 
the firm trans|)ortation facilities not enjoyed l)y any similar house. They also 
have immense storage f.icilities, the caiiacity of the warehouse being about 
20,000 bushels. 


This establishment is not only the largest of its kind in Wilmington, but 
also in the State of Delaware. The location is at 410 King street, and the 
building occupied here is four stories high, 25 feet front by 125 feet deep. The 
manufacture of furniture is carried on in the basement and the third and 
fourth stories, while the first and second floors are used as the ware and sales- 
rooms. The various styles of furniture here are very neat, and the finish is of 
a superior quality, great regard being paid to strength and durability. The 
walnut cluunber sets are handsome specimens, and the library and the bed-room 
suits claim sjiecial admiration. The utmost care is taken to have every article 
perfect, and every jiiece of furniture turned out at the establishment is well and 
carefully made. The warerooms contain every piece of furniture needed to 
beautify or furnisli a flrst-class residence ; library and drawing-room furniture ; 
parlor ami chamber sets, and in truth, a limitless variety of the liest furniture 
to be found anywhere. 

This is not only the largest and most conspicuous furniture house in the State 
of Delaware, ))ut it is also the oldest, being estal)lislied al)out the year 1H50, l)y 
the i)resent senior i);u-tner, the son, Mr. J. N. Ilarman, being admitted in the 
year 1858, giving the partnership its present style. 

The business has progressed favorably through all these years; slowly and 
surely the manufactures of the house ac(pured fame and sale, and to-day the 
best attestations of what they have accomplished is in theirsui)erb wareiiouse and 
factory, both of which are stocked with diveisifled appliances, and woods of the 
most rare and enduring kinds. Everything about the establishment is under 
the personal sui)ervision of Mr. J. N. Harman, who is liimself a practical man, 
having mastered the business under favorable advantages. 


The carriage works and repository of Mr. John (Ireen, at the south-east cor- 
ner of Second and Frencli streets, is the oldest establishment of the kind in the 


city, and was erected by Mr. Jolin Merrick in the year 184S, and occupied by 
him for seventeen consecutive years. It lias always been a successful establish- 
ment, and was occujiied by the well-known tinn of McLear & Kendall before 
Mr. (Jreen took possession of it. T\\v biiildini; is three stories hit^h, inde])en- 
dent of the basement, the latter beint;- used as a smith shoj) and tinishinj^ 
room. The first floor contains the show room and carriage paint shop; the 
second story contains the body paint sho|) and trinmiing room ; the third story 
is devoted to the wood shops and wheel shops. This establishment has educa- 
ted some of the best mechanics in Wihniuoton in the carriage l)usiness, among 
them a number of proprietors. The present proi)rietor, Mr. (Jreen, took 
])ossession of the place in 1865, buying out McLear & Kendall, and has lieen 
doing a large and successful l)nsiness ever since. Mr. (treen was Ixirn in 
Philadeliihia in ISIS, and his first exi)erience in the carriage business was 
in the great west. He counneuced tlie manufacture of carriages in Wilining- 
tcm in the year ISIil, at a shoi» on Shijiley street above Front, which he occu- 
pied until he moved to his present large manufactory in 1865. The business 
carried on by Mr. Green is conducted with the greatest system and regularity, 
and each department is superintended by a competent foreman or manager. 
P-mployment is given to some 4o workmen, and the capacity of the works is 
about ")00 vehicles annually. Besides carriages of all styles, Mr. Green has 
made as high as 75 sleighs in one season. His vehicles are found in nearly all 
the principal cities of the Union, but his principal trade is in the South and 

The establishment of Mr. Green occupies one of the best locations in the city 
for selling carriages. It is a central business location, and is only one and 
a-half squares from the Pliil'a, Wilmington & Baltimore Rail Koail depot, over 
whicli a great many carriages are shipped. The proprietor is well known 
throughout the State of Delaware as a proinj)t and straightforward business 
man, and is highly respected as a citizen. He is genial and interesting in con- 
versation, and imiircsses favoral)ly those with wliom he is Itrouglit in contact. 


^W. HORN. 

One of the largest carriage manufactories, and one doing a very extensive 
business in Wilmington, is that of Mr. Charles W. Horn, located at lOS Wal- 
nut street. The factory here is built of brick, five stories high, has a front of 
100 feet on Walnut street, and has over 37,000 scpuire feet of flooring, and runs 
sixteen forges. Mr. Horn is a native of Vermont, and came to Wilmington in 
185.'-), and shortly afterwards conunenced his career as a carriage builder, at 
which business he has been remarkably successful. He first located at the cor- 
ner of Second and French streets, was next in i>artnership with the veteran 
carriage maker, .lohn Merrick, as Merrick iS: Co., and finally purchased his 
present large five story factory. Mr. Horn hascidarged this building from time 
to time, and it is doubtful whether any similar works in Wibuington iiave as 
much floor s[)ai'e. 

The nund)er of liands employed ranges from sixty to eighty, and the works 
have a capacity to turn out upwanls of four hundred vehich's annually. Mr. 
Horn also builds a, uundier of handsome and elegant sleighs cai'h season, some 
of them being worth as high as $'M)0. He keeps a splendid stock of sulistan- 
tial and well finished carriages in the repository, of almost every style and 
build. Of these maybe mentioned .Jenny Linds, barouches, rockaways, top 
and no-top buggies, six post Callrey, light slat or i)uck wagons, Concord side 
spring wagons, and ( Jermantowns. Mr. Horn has a good home trade and 
makes a, great many vehicles to onh'r for home trade, though his iiriucipid 
trade is in the South and West. Within the past few ycarshis tradi' has largely 
increased in this section. A working ca|iilai of (tver $50,000 is employed, and 
the proprietor makes it a nde lo imy and sell for casii, llius ollcring careful 
buyersthe most salisfa<'tory induremeuls. 

The location of (liese works is one of the most convenient in tlu' city, and is 
oidy one s(piaie from the i'hiladeliihia, Wilnunglon and Baltimore Kail Hoad 


Depot. Indeed, it is riire to see a loeality and Imsinc'ss so eminently apostate 
to eaeli otlier as is here exliibited, wliicli fact is liliiTally attested hy the amount 
of Iiusiness transaeted l)y the proin'ietor. Mr. Horn well deserves the success 
and the name and reputation he has secured in the earriajjje Iiusiness. lie is a 
i;enial and pleasant man to converse with, and is one of the most popular and 
highly esteemed citizens of Wilmington. lie is well calculated to make any 
enterjirise a success, and his establishment has done much to add to the reputa- 
tion of Wilmington as a carriage manufacturing city. 


The large morocco manufactory of Messrs. Puscy, Scott A: Co., in Wilming- 
ton, is located at the corner t)f Third and Madison streets, which is one of 
the largest cstalilishmcnis of (he kind in the cily. The business was originally 
estal)lished in tiic year LS45, in a rather modest and unpretentious way, at the 
corner of Third and Tatnall streets, and the lirni carried on here until 186G, 
when the jiresent extensive factory was erected and taken jtosscssion of the same 
year. The members comprising the firm are James Scott, John M. Scott, and 
J. M. Scott. The former senior partner, Mr. Puscy, retired from the lirm in 
1873, but it was deemed advisable not to change the old firm name, as it was 
nnder that title the house had gained its reputation and become prosperous in 
an eminent degree. 

The establishment they now occupy is a five-story brick structure in the shape 
of an L. It has '28 feet six inches i'ront on Madison street, and extends along 
Third street 102 ieet. The L i)art of the building is 32 feet wide and extends 
132 feet back from Third street. The diflerent divisions of the factory are 
nundjcred respectively from No. 1 to No. 8. Tiie iirst Hoor of the factory is 
used as a store room, the second floor is wareroom and salesroom, the third floor 
is ofiice and assorting room ; the fourth and fifth stories are devoted to the 
leather and dyeing rooms. The first floor of No. 2 is tanning room and engine 
room, the second floor is used for the storing of hides and sumac, the third as 
finisliing room, and the Iburlh and fifth as lealiierand dyeing rcjonis. The first 
floor of No. 3 is the beaming room; the second, machine room and for storing 
hides; the third, as finishing room; and the fourth and fifth as leather and 
dyeing rooms. No. 4 is two stories high, the first used as a tannery and the 
second for dyeing rooms. No. 5 is a one-story out-building containing the steam 
boilers. No. G is another building, separate from the main portion, devoted 
entirely to the coloring of hides, and called the C(jloring honse. No. 7 is a 
house for storing hair, and No. 8 is a lime house. 

It will thus be seen that the factory is conducted on a systematic and exten- 
sive scale. Machinery of the most modern inake has bc'en introduced, and em- 
])loynient is given to alxnit 50 hands, whose combined laboi' turns out about 40 
dozen of cape goat skins per day. Tlie machinery and works are operated by a 
sixty liorse-power engine, which is supplied with steam by seventy-five horse- 
power boiler. The various processes which the skins undergo liefore they be- 
come an article of tracle or connnerce, are both interesting anil laborious. The 
firm convert annually about 140,000 goat skins into inorocco, manufacturing 
principally from cajie skins. Their stock comjirisew all the common and finer 
grades. Tlieir trade extends all over the United States, but they sell most in 
the Southern and Wtstern States, and for handsome a})})earance and (juality 
their manufacture cannot be surpassed by any of their rivals. Their reinitation 
is of the highest (^rder, and they are gentlemen who are highly esteemed in the 
comnnmity, and are known to lie jtrogressive, jiractical and enteriu'ising. 


The business of this firm was connnenced at the present location. Tenth and 
Tatnall streets, in March, 1872. Here they have a cojumodious factory, 
ecpiipped with all the ap[)liances and facilities necessary for carrying on the 
Ijusiness successfully. The principal vehicles that they build and keep on hand 
in their warerooms are extension-top pluetons, ])ony plnetons, (Jermantowns, 



rockaways, buggies, &c. Tlieir fat-riages arc nearly all sold as fast as they can 
build tlicni, even in these dull times. Since Messrs. IVIcChiskey iV: (V). started 
in business here, live years ago, their make of carriages have been constantly 
growing in re])utation and popularity up to the i)re,sent time. They appreciate 
that rei)Utation is of more value in the long run than any temixiiaiy jirotits 
from ]ioor, chca|) work, so they em]>ioy the most skilifid workmen in ail the de- 
partments, and use only the best material in the market. The cloth and car- 
peting used in the various vehicles is for tlu' most }>art strong, firm, and of a 
beautiful color, for which they i)ay tlie highest prices and find that it pays to 
do so. 

This iirm employ, altogether, twenty skilled mechanics, and have a capacity 
to turn out aljout three hundred finished vehicles anniuilly. The individual 
members of the (irm are W. J. McCluskey and Wesley Walls, both prac- 
tical men and i-eally educated artizans in the work in which lliey arc engagi d. 
Mr. McCluskey is a native of Pittsburg, but came to Wiiniington in ls4<i. 
When only 17 yeais of age he was apprenticed to the firm of J'laglor »V Co., 
and sei'vcd four years. After compleling his trade here he worked as journey- 
man foi- the extensive firms of (iregg A: IJowe and Thoms(jn iS: I'aschall, and 
was foreman of John Green's large works previous to establishing his new man- 
ufactory. A tuition and training in such a school of carriage si'ience and art 
for so many years, has resulted in making INFr. ^^cCluskey one of the nxist skill- 
ed and educated men in this deiiarlment of industry. Mr. Walls, the junior 
member of the fiiin, was born in Cecil Co., Md., in l<S4(i, and learned his trailc 
witli Sanuiel Miller, of iSorristown, serving four years. He was af'tci-war<ls an 
employe in the celel)rated Caflrey works at Camden, which was of great advan- 
tage to him. In LSliS he came to Wilmington and worked for C. AVcsley Wel- 
din, Thomson & Paschall, and others, until he entered into itartnership with 
Mr. McCluskey in 1.S72. These gentlemen are entitled to a great deal of credit 
for the manner in which they have conducted their business, and i-aised them- 
selves ]jy their own exertions and energy. All they have and enjoy is their 
own, as they were both poor boys with nothing but good trades and excellent 
constitutions to start them in the world. 

W. T. SHAW. 

Tlie celebrated " Iron Harvester," one of the best mowers and reapers in use 
by farmers, is made at Wilmington, by W. T. Shaw, the inventor of the ma- 
chine. It was one of the finest mowing machines invented and maiuifactured, 
and the improvements added from time to time iiave ma<le it almost perfect, 
and its work is of the highest order. The eslaliiishment owned here by Mr. 
Shaw was founded in IfS-")?, is three stories high, and is located at the corner of 
Justison and Front streets, and fronts sixty feet on the former and forty feet on 
the latter street. 

Mr. Shaw also manufactures many of the latest iiiii)nive<l agrieuilnral im- 
plements, such as i)l(jws, cultivators, harrows, corn sheilers, threshers, spades, 
shovels, hoes, etc., and gives emi)loyment to a force of twenty-five and thirty 
liands. Some of the specialties are well worthy of notice, and are of Mr. 
Shaw's own invention. He manufactures to order and for the trade, and ships 
im])lements to almost every part of the country. He issues circulars free to 
farmers, giving (k'scriplions and showing the superior advantages of many of 
liis implements. 

The "Iron I larvester," to which we alludi', isa favorite tbrougbout l)ela- 
ware, Maryland, and Southern Pennsylvania. ( )ne important feature to farmers, 
in Mr. Shaw's business, is that he employs no agents or luidille-men to stdl his 
machines, but sells direct to the farmer, thus saving to tlu' latter from 'io to lU) 
))i'r cent, of the purchase money. The " Harvester" rinis light, is less liable to 
get out of order than anv other, and every |iarl is intercliangeabK', same as the 
(lifU'rent parts of watches or muskets, in case any ]iart shoui<l become injnri'd 
or broken, the farmer can obtain the exact eounteri)art at the manufactory. Kv- 
ery machine is guaranteed, for it is made of the best material and by excellent 


worknifii, who are tli(ir()U.<;lily |>i'acti('al. Mv. Shaw is a practical man liiiiiself, 
and thorouglily inidcrstands his hnsincss. His great ingenuity and inventive 
genius iuive hei'U tlie means of lessening tlie lal)i)r of file farmer to a great ex- 
tent hv inventing and manufacturing hilxtr-saving macliinery achipted to farm 
worlv. In tiiis respect Mr. Sliaw may well be considered a benefactor to his 


The extensive tanning business of Messrs. Downing & Price, in Wilmington, 
is carried on at the corner of Fourth and Adams streets. The building occu- 
pied is almost new, two stories high, 32 feet wide by 140 feet long. Tlie ma- 
chinery is driven by a sixty horse-jiower engine. On the lower tlooi- is the 
tan-yard, where (J large double vats and 42 single vats, 4 limes, and ('» pools are 
to be seen. The vats are trunked at jiolli the ^o\^ and l)ottom, so that very little 
labor is re(|uired (o run the licjuor into them or from them. On the second 
story is the macliinery for rolling the leather after it lias been tanned and par- 
tially dried. ( )n the corner of the lot is the bark-house, where all the bark is 
stored pre))aralory to being used. The liquor by which the hides are tanned is 
made iiy eight " leeches," 10 by 12 feet, and 4^ feet deep. The liquor is 
pumped from the vats by a immp of Mr. Price's own invention, and is ojierated 
eiitirelv l>y steam, and the hand labor is greatly lessened thereby. The tannery 
is one of the linest and most substantial buildings in Wilmington, and is located 
at the junction of (wo of the princi]ia! streets. 

The manufactures of this establishment are justly celebrated, and the amount 
made annually far exceeds that of any other lii-m in Wilmingtcm. They have 
a cajiacity of tanning about .1,000 liides into sole leather annually, and their 
pr(j(lucts tind a ready market in New York and Philadelphia. 

The originators of this enterprise commenced business in a small way, and liad 
little cash capital to back them; but by hard-fisted labor, economy and a careful 
invesligation of every iiiqirovement bearing on tlie business, together with able 
and conscientious management, their goods ac(piired a widespread i-eimtalitin, 
and iKj house stands higher to-day than that of Downing & Price. 


The Clayton House, the only first-class hotel in Wilmington, is situated at 
the corner of Fifth and Market streets, the most eligible part of the city. 
Among the successful business enterprises of Wilmington, it deserves more tlian 
a passing notice in lliese pages. Wilmingtonians ai'c justly proud of it, and 
would, we are sure, not regard our book as com])lete did wh' omit to give its 
history witli the leading business liouses of the city. 

The Clayton House was built by a stock company in 1872, under tlie archi- 
tectural sujiervision of Messrs. Dixon & C'arson, of Baltimore, M<1. Tlie ac- 
companying cut shows the sjilendid exterior of the hotel, while the following 
<lescri]>tion will give the reader an idea of the interior of this noble edifice. 
Tiie building has a front of 04 feet on Market street, 210 tWt on Fifth street, 
and extends back to King street. It is live stories high, indeiieiideiit ol' the 
basenu'iit. The main entrance to tlie hotel is in the t'cnter of the Market street 
front, through a Corinlhian jiorlicoto a vesliluile 9 by i'eet, and by a light and 
cheerful corridor feet wide, to the oftice, near the center of the main hall. 
Fi'om the hall in w4ii(4i the oHice is located, a corridor, also nine feet wide, 
leads to the dining room, passing llu; ])arlors and the ladies' ordinary or tea 
room. The ladies' entrance from Fifth street is into this last named corridor, 
between the gentlemen's and ladies' parloi-s. On both sides of the main en- 
trance are departments used for lianking jmrposes, each aliout 2") feet wide, 
fronting on Market street. The (jne on the l^'ifth street corner is occupied by 
the I'^ii-st National IJaukof Wilmington, and the other bv the Artizans' Savings 

There are four stores fronting on King street, eacli Klby 40, with high stories 
and iron fronts. On the Fifth street front of the basement there are three de- 
partments, used as a barber shop, gents' furnishing store, and cigar store. These 



last named (lepartiiiL'iits connect by doorways with tlie hotel corridoi-s. The 
private or hidies' entrance to tlie liotel is from Fiftli street, as stated, and the 
ofiiee in tlie central hall commands a tine view of the two entrances, the main 
corridors and staircases.' There are fonr ])arlors (jn the main floor, each 17 by 
22 feet, two for gentlemen and two for ladies, with sliding doors between. 
These are furnished in the most elaborate style, and contain every I'onvenience 
necessary for tlie comfort of tiie t^uests. Tiie dining room is large and has ac- 
commodations for seating 200 guests at one time. The bill of fare here is ex- 
cellent, and the ejiicurean features of the house are among its priucijial attrac- 
tions. There is a cloak room and wash room near the office. These apart- 
ments are all large and well lighted, :i,s well as the stairways leading to them. 
There is an excellent billiard room, gentlemen's refreshment room, bakery, and 
some other apartments in the basement. 


Besides the foui' ]iarlors on the main door, (here are two more on the second 
story, fronting on Mai'kt't stivet, each 17 by 2") feet, and furnished in elegant 
style. They are s() arranged that each of them may have one or two chandiers, 
l>ath room and waler closet connected. 'INicy can also lie made into a convt'- 
nient suiti' of rooms, or uiay be used sejiarately. 

Altogether, tliere are about one hun(hv<l and live chambers on the ditlerent 
floors, whi('h are well ventilated and kept in admirable order. Many of these 
are large enough for "double rooms," some being 17 feet S([uare, and some even 
larger. All the chamlu-rs, with the exception of thosi' in the attic, have open 
grates, wliich, in cold weather, give a cbeei'I'ul and home look to the ai>artments. 
In the attic the rooms ha\e Hues for wood or coal stoves. ( )n each of tlu" cham- 
ber llo(U-s there are four bath-rooms, eacli with bath, and livi' water closets. 
I'^acli I'oom is also provided with a ])ermaueul wash-basin and spiggol. There 
is also a slop-tra|), di'MW cock, and siidc inn |iii\:ile closet in each story, all 
lit ted u|) in I he most cniiiiilcte maiuu'r with marble liips, S:i\, presenting (piite a 
handsome ;i]i|icarance. 'I'he sysli'Ui of bi'ils is xcry compleli", and one in each 
room connects with an auuuncialor in the ollice. Tiie rooms are all lighted 
with gas, and rurnished lliroiigboul with water, 'i'liere are ampli' linen closets 
on each lloor. A private staircase near I lie center ot' the building, leads from the 
cellar to the Hat oil the roof of (he hotel. ( 'oiiimunicating with each story, and 
riuiuiug from the cellar to the top story ol'llie house, is a patent safety elevator. 
The laiMidiy departiiKiit, with washing, drying and ironing rooms, A.'c., is lo- 
cated in the attic. The ceilings are all high, and all of the ai>artments, in- 


eluding corriilors, offices, stairs, bath-rooms, water elosets, &c., are well lighted 
and ventilated. No dark plaees ai'e to be found in or about the building, and 
everything has been added to the house to render it a really tirst-class hotel. 

There are few, if any, buildings in Wilmington that are as im})osing, or that 
can compare in beauty of arebitectural design and finish with the ('layton 
House. The foundations are of solid stone, the walls of brick, and the fronts 
are of handsome })ressed brick, with trinunings of Ohio sandstone. Tlie en- 
trance, porticos, bank fronts and store fronts, are of iron, very bold and massive 
in design. The sills, steps, plinths, etc., are of the very finest granite. The 
perpendicular part of the mansard roof is covered with slate, and the top with 
tin. Tlie cornices, pinnacles, dormer windows, chimneys, cresting, &c., all 
combine to add to tlie attractiveness of the structure, and are arranged with that 
special object in view. The location of the ("layton House at the corner of 
Fifth and Market streets, at once decided the liusiness center of Wilmington. 
It was erected here in the year 1872, and has pi-ovided a want long felt in Wil- 
mington, as previous to that time the city was witiiout a really lirst-chiss hotel. 
The proprietor of the Clayton House, Isaac ('. I'yie, lias ii;id a long exjterience 
in the hotel business, and is just the person to condui^t such an enterprise suc- 
cessfully, and is too well versed in a management of this nature to forget the 
necessaries attending a hotel. He is progressive and fully up to the times, 
and it is through his excellent management and executive ability that the 
Clayton House has become popular with the best class of citizens. Considering 
the acconmiodations and advantages of the house, the rates are quite re;».son- 
able. The accommodations for families are the best that can be found in the 
city, and within the j)ast two or three years a number of the best families of 
Wilmington :ind other cities have taken up j)ermanent board at the hotel, thus 
relieving themselves of all household cares and duties. Tlie location of the 
hotel is very convenient, and the most beautiful that can l)e found. From the 
upper stories beautiful landscape and water scenery are visible. The Jersey 
shore, the Delaware river, and the historic Erandywine and C'hristiana are in 
full view. 8ucli a hotel as this would be an honor to the greatest city on either 



The Spoke and Wheel Works of Messrs. Springer, Morley & Cxause, located 
at the corner of Third and Orange streets, Wilmington, is the largest and most 
complete establishment in the State of Delaware, a ])rief description of which 
will give tlie readi'r an idea of the extent to which this busini'Ss is carried. 
When first started by this hrm it was carried on in a limited way, and the 
buildings erected on the i)remises ;it that time were small, but the rare business 
tact and al>ility disj)layed liy the gentlenuMi in charge, coupled with many im- 
provements from time to time in machinery, l)y which they ol)tained increased 
facilities for the jiroduction of very su})erior work, gave them such telling ad- 
vantages as si)ecial tradesmen, and commended tluMu so highly to carriage 
builders, that their business soon grew to a magnitude, and tliey were obliged 
to enlarge their Ituildings. The large mimufnctoiy ;it Third nud < )range streets 
is a substantial l)rick structure, four stories high and liasement, comjjlctely fitted 
up with the best and latest im|)r()vc(l machinery, by tiie aid of which goods are 
produced Avhich are noted tbroiighuut many civilized countries for their supe- 
rior excellence. The manufactures of the firm consist of fine carriage wheels, 
shafts, bows, and wheel nniterial for all description of carriages and wagons. 
The firm also make all kinds of " mill work," such as sash, blinds, shutters, 
mouldings, brackets, &c. They kecj) a large stock of these manufactured ar- 
ticles on hand ready to ship at a moment's notice. The extent of their manu- 
facture is about 100 sets of tinislied wlu'cls ])er week. Indeiiendent of these 
finished sets they turn out daily a lai-ge numlier of sjiokes, rims, lud)s and 
shafts, besides a large amount of planing mill work. Hickory, White Oak, 
and Elm, are the woods chieffy used for making the wheels and other parts ot 
the carriages. The firm select and cut nearly all the material used, (having 


tliirty men employed in tlie woods lor this purpose,) wliieh is tliorouglily dried 
and seasoned before heing used. The mendjers of tliis firm have made many 
new improvements in tlie different ])arts of carriage material, and they also have 
the exclusive control of several valualjle patents enaljling them to make luiex- 
celled wheels, which are sold throughout the United States. Mr. Morley has a 
patent spoke and felloe attachment of great value, which is his own invention. 
A wheel in itself is (piite a simple tiling ; a spoke, a hub, or a rim, seems 
very nnich more so; l)ut to make eitlier, or ail, recpures a remarkable amount 
of art, manipulation, and judgment. The wheels made at the factory of 
Springer, Morfey i<i (Jause, retpiire to through upwards of thirty-two ma- 
chines, many of which are ingeniously uuule. In all departments of their 
manufactory, Messrs. Springer, Morley & (iause emi)loy from 4U to 50 men the 
season round. Some idea of the extent of the l)usiness conducted l>y this rejire- 
sentativc house can be obtained from tlie fact that they kceji over !i^.jO,(lO() worth 
of material alone on hand, while the superi(uily of their work is demoustrali'd 
by tlu'ir almost unlimited trade, which extends all over the country. .Vs ln'forc 
intimated, the eminent success of this lirm is due, in a great measure, to the 
ability displayed by its members and the improvements in the machinery. 
Their manufactures are a great convenience to the numerous carriage building 
firms of Wilmington, as previous to the establishment of this wheel factory they 
were obligc'd to ship many of their sui)plies from a distance. 



(^ne of the oldest, as well as leading firms engaged in carriage building in 
Wilmington, is the firm of Messrs. Frist A: .\llmon, whose large manufactory 
is located at the corner of Seventh and Shipley streets. To trace the history of 
this house, we will be comj)elle(l to go back to the time carriage making busi- 
ness was first introduced in Wiliiiiugtou. Mr. John Merrick, who was one of 
the foimdci's of tlu' business in AVilmingtou, after carrying on the business from 
1S42 until IS4(), siis]>euded at this latlc^r date; all bis hands being suddenly 
thrown out of work, a meeting of the workmen was called for the pnrj)ose of 
organizing a co-operative firm to continue the business. Out of 35 or 40 hanils, 
only six or eight liad the courage to inidertake it. These were (ieo. Alhnon, 
Joel Frist, Henry Pretzschener, Fnos Hunsberger, Joseph String, Sanuiel 
Reeves, (ieorge Robinson, and A. Flaglor, doing business under the firm name 
of A. Flaglor A' (!o. To this company of young and energetic mechanics be- 
longs the honoi' of first establishing tlu' carriage business in Wilmington on a 
sound and enduring basis. Three new firms came from tlu'aliove, one of which 
is the [iresent firm of Messrs. Frist tV Allmon. They withdrew from the i-o- 
operative firm in 1S5(), having been with the organization ten years. In IS5!> 
they built their large manufactory and wait'rooms, where they have done a 
large business ever since, though never using their facilities beyond couditious 
of most n4iable workiuausliip. 

I'otli members of the firm have been idenliiied with tlu' business since boy- 
hood. They ari'eightyearsolder than IheoldesI cslablishe<l carriage lirm inihe 
city. It is lifty-two years since Mr. I'^risl liisl leaiiied bis tradt' with oiu' of the 
fii'st cari'iagt' builders ol' Wilmington, serving seven yi'ars ol'an appr»-nticeshij) 
and starting when only thirteen years of age. Mr. Alluion has been in the 
business for 12 years, and was an apprenlice lor 1 years ami a journeyman for (i 

'I'heir commodious building at Seventh and Shipley streets is 5S by til feet, four 
stories high and basement. The basi'mi'Ul is used for a smith shoji, the first story 
as ollice and salesidom ; second story wood and liiiishing shops ; third trimming 
and variiisliing rooms, and the foinlli as a paiul shop. 'I'lie location is one of the 
best ill the cily, and has bia'U occupied for this business foi- iiuhh' than thirty 
years. They make a variety of styles of light and durable carriages, (lony 
l)haelous, buggies, wagons, i<:c., for wliich ihey have;i large and satisfactory i4ass 
of itui'(4iasers. 'i'liey also make a special branch of repairing liiu- carriagi's, a\)d 
vehicles of all kinds. They have a good local trade for carriages built to order, 


and also ship a s^roat many to tlie sontli and wc'st. They employ some thirty 
workmen, most of wliom are skilled meehanies, and liave a tliorongh and eom- 
jdete knowledne o(" tlie liusini'ss. No small iiK'asiire of the success of this firm 
is due to tiieir wisdom in selei'liiig the ahlest and most competent assistants. 
Tiie estalilisiiment in tiie completeness of its a[>pointments, the system of its 
management and the excellence of its manufactures, is an honor to its proprie- 
tors, and one of tlie model estahlishments of Wilmington. 


The business carried on hy tliis enterprising Company in Wilmington is the 
most extensive of any in the t'ity. The work engaged in is chiellv car, engine, 
and ship building, and the works have, to some extent, a national i-epulation. 
In 18.'>(), two ])lain, nnpi'ctending mechanics, Sanmel Harlan, J r., a cabinet 
maker, and lOlijah IloUingsworth, a machinist, united their skilland their then 
limited means, and commenced Iniilding cars and engines on the <jpposite side 
of the street from the location of the present works. This was just Ijefore the 
great crisis of 18:57, and this firm had their struggles and reserves, in common 
with others, like all men engaged in gi-eat entei-prises, but this only stinudated 
them all the more, and llu'ir eslablishnienl soon gained an enviable reputation. 

In IS 10 they added to their business tlie important fealure of iron ship build- 
ing, which has now come to be their lea<ling branch. The lii-m name was first 
called after its founders, Harlan «S: IloUingsworth. On the admission of Mr. 
Gause to the jiartnership in 1S5<S, the lirm name l)ecaine Ilarlaii, IloUingsworth 
& Co., and since the death of Mr. IloUingsworth, which occurred in ISGG, it has 
been changed to the jtresent style. The location of the yard and works is at the 
foot of W^est street, on the Christiana river, situated conveniently upon the 
Philade!|ihia, Wilmington & Baltimore Rail Iload, and is the same general lo- 
cality occujiii'd from the first, excei)t that the slioj)s have been removed from 
the east to tlie west side of the street. The works and the different buildings 
cover about nine acres of ground, and give steady employment to between 600 
and 800 skilled workmen the season round, and give entire support to about 
2,500 of the inhabitants of the city. 

The rail road cars built at these works are jiictures of beauty, neatness and 
comfort. A great many of the handsome cars on the P. W. & I>. K. K. are 
from the Harlan & Ilollingsworth Com])any's shops, and it is the opinion of 
competent judges that the cars run on this road are the best made and finished 
of any in the country. Until the establishment of John Koach & Co.'s ship 
yards, at the thriving town of Chester, this Comiiany were the most extensive 
ship builders in this section. As it is, they have the honor of having l)uiit 
more shijis than any ship biulders south of Philadelphia. Their ships are of 
the highest grade in modern style and workmanship, anil some of tliem are 
finished in the most elaborate and elegant manner, and go to all parts of this 
coimtry and also to foreign ports. During the rebellion the Company built a 
great many iron monitors and otiier vessels for the United iStates Oovernment. 
Some years they make and launch as high as seven and eight ships, the magni- 
tude of which work will appear mow clearly when we state that the lai'gesi of 
these rate from 1400 t(^ 1800 t(jns burden, and that they are completely finished 
at these works with all their ajipliances and machinery, boilers, engines, Alc. 
Besides this, they Ijuild engines and hulls for other parties. Most of the ma- 
terial used in the construction of tiieir slii[)s and cars is obtained in Wilming- 
ton, or the State of Delaware. Much of the boiler plate is from the extensive 
wt)rks of Seidell & Hastings, and is of the very best and most durable make. 
The Harlan & IloUingsworth Company take a just pride in making first-class 
work, and in maintaining their reputation for this, and also for fnlliliing all 
their engagements at home and abroad. The origin, growth, and present con- 
dition of this establishment is a striking illustration of the benign s])irit of our 
free institutions, that leave every jKist of greatness, every avenue of success, 
open alike to all. Yea, that take by the hand the huml>lest child of the lie- 
pnblic, and with fostering care, if he will but help himself, conduct him to 
wealth and fame. 



Tliest' (.'Xtensivc works in Wiliniiiiitoii, arc lucali-il at tlif fool of Poplar 
street, on tlic Cliristiana river, and tlie yanis and works are several aeres in ex- 
tent. The business was tirst foumled in 1S4!), and llion^li several elianj-es have 
been made \>y the indiviihial paitners, the original Hrni name, Piisey, Jones A: 
Co., is still retained. All kinds ol' machinery is made at the works, l»nt the 
great specialty of the establishment is iron ship linildinj^;. They bnild iron 
ships, exclusively, of every size and style, from a propeller to a frj-jind floating 
jiahice of '2,0UU tons bnrden. They do all the work, from a rudder to an en- 
gine, from a piston to a walking l)eani, in their own establisliinent. They also 
bnild engines for other parties, though for the most part these are used in their 
own shijts. They usually make five or six large ships a year, and they have 
made as high as eight, which is the fidl eapacity of the works. Their ships 
anil !)oals can be seen lo-day on most of (he waters of the Western Continent, 
though their market is wherever they can find purchasers. They likewise make 
a specialty of repairing ships, and they give steady employment to from three 
Innidred to live hundred workmen the year n)inid. The works have added 
largely to the prosperity and gr(»wth (jf the city, and well deserve the great 
success and reputation they have achieved. 


These celebrated j)iiosphate works are located in the suburl)s of \\'ilijiinglon, 
and the proprietors have an office in the city at 'JO.S West Front street. They 
also liave ofiices and warehouses at No. *JS South Wharves, riiiladeljihia, and 
at 1() Bowley's wharf, Baltimore. The fertilizers otiered l)y Messrs. Walton, 
Whann & Co., are probably wider known among the farming community than 
those of any other manufacturer in the comitry. There are few farmers, fr(jm 
the Atlantic to the Pacific, from Maine to the'tiidf of Mexico, but what have 
used the fertilizers of this firm, as they manufacture all kinds, suitable for all 
croi)s and climates. In view of these facts a history and description of these 
works will l)e of interest to the farmer readers of this book. 

Messrs. Walton, Whann & Co. commenced business in a small way, and their 
manufactures were limited at first, but the reputation of their fertilizers in- 
creased, and in aslnjrt time they commenced the erection of their jiresent wntrks, 
which are the largest and best appointed in the United States for the mainifae- 
ture of connncrcial fertilizers. Every process of mamifacture from the crudest 
form of raw material is now carried on in these works, reijuiring the services of 
seven steam engines, aggregating nearly three liimdrcd horse power, all of which 
are used in picparing the material and the manipulation of these fertilizers. 
Tlie buildings are of the strongest and most substantial character, and togetlier 
with the lands and machinery, cost upwards of two hundn'd and fifty thousand 
dollars. They have in successfid operation at their works, a set of the largest 
sulphuric acid chand>ers in the country, the entire product of whiih are used 
in the preparation of their fertilizers. Their factory is connected by tracks, 
nnniing directly into their sti)rehouscs, with the I'hiiadclphia, Wilmington A- 
P)altiinore, and the \Vilmington <.^ Reading Pail lloads, and through IIrui, with 
every inijiortant road in the coinitry. Their wharf front has ln'i'u extt'uded so 
that they now have over 1000 feet of wharfage, of sufiicient dei)th of water to 
acconnnodate vessels of seven to eight hundred tons ca|iacity, which they load 
and discharge by steam power. 

These um'(|ualed facilities enable them to receive ciikK' matiiiais at tlii' 
lowest |)ossible cost, and to ship their finished articles at an expense trilling in 
com])arison with that of other fai-tories k'ss favorably located. Using, as they 
do, vi'ry large (|uanlities of raw stock, they iwv thus I'ualilcd to buy by the cargo 
or train load, and to control many sources of supply which arc inaci'i'ssible to 
the small buy<T. The long cxpi'rience of Messrs. Walton, Whann iV Co. in 
their business, together with the cai)ilal and skill at their command, gives 
strong assuranci' to every coiisunu'r tiuit they are I'uablei! to do what they pro- 
fess, viz: to make tiic lust fertilizer for the money which can ])ossil)ly bi' 
manufactured, and from the reports of the planters and farmer.s, north and 


soutli, it is evident that tlieir bone-dust and phosphates already occupies tliis liigh 
position, and that tlie proprietors are fully determined tliat everytliini^ tliat 
science, ca])ital and experience can do to maintain this Jii^li standard, will 
l)e empliiyed witliont stint. 


The )iaint and varnish works of ]Mr. James r>radford, located at Nos. (i and 8 
East Third street, are the most extensive, and only really important works of 
their kind in Wilmington, and were estalilished by the present proprietor about 
the year 1847. The luiilding occupied is four stories higji, 40 by 50 feet, anel 
admiraljly arranged for the l)usiness. 

The first story of the splendid structure is used as the salesroom, in which 
there is a large stock of white lead, zincs, paints, poco brown, putty, oils, var- 
nish, turpentine, brushes and window glass. 

The manufactory occupies the upper stories of the building, and nearly all 
the al)tive articles are manufactured here, and are as pure and of as high a 
standard as those of any maker in Philadelphia or New York. 

The establisliment gives employment to twenty hands in all departments, and 
tlie jiroducts of the factory are sold in Wilmington and throughout the States 
of Delaware, ^laryland and southern Pennsylvania. Mr. Bradford is a native 
of Wilmington, and is quite popular and justly esteemed for his principles of 
honor and strict integrity. 


One of the most important industries of Wilmington are the works of Trump 
Bros., manufacturers of the celebrated Fleetwood and Dexter Scroll Saws. 
The first successful saw esjiecially adapted to fine work was invented by this 
enterprising firm, and patented July, 1872. The invention was calleil the 
Fleetwood Scroll Saw, in honor of Fleetwood Park, New York, a name which 
has since become famous, and the machines that bear it are known and used in 
almost every part of tlie world. 

Shortly after receiving their letters patent, the inventors purchased a lot and 
erected a manufactory in Wilmington on Beech street, near the W^ilmington & 
Northern Rail Road, in the south-western part of the city, and liegan tlie man- 
ufacture of their maciiines on a scale proportionate to the demand for them. 
The business of the firm of Trump Bros, in the manufacture of these saws has 
been steadily increasing from the first, until their saws have become celebrated 
in a great many of the civilized countries of the glol)e. 

Tlieir manufactory is a two-story brick building, 30 by 60 feet, with a one- 
story addition, 2-5 by 40 feet, used as a fitting-np room. On tlie first floor of the 
main building is the machine shop, office, paint shop, and engine room. There 
are seven lathes in the machine shop, several of them new, besides three mill- 
ing machines, one six spindled drill, one five spindled drill and one three 
sjiindled drill, and a number of special tools, all of which are driven by a five 
horse-power vertical engine. 

The castings used in the saws are made by Wilson, Parsons & Co., of Bridge- 
port, Conn., and are of the veiy finest description, and are really marvels of 
the moulders' skill. The reason they pay the freight on them all the way from 
Bridgeport, is because there are no founders in Wilmington, or in any town 
convenient, that are able to make them. In general ajipearance, the Fleetwood 
Saw is not unlike a sewing machine, though they occupy less space than the 
average sewing machine, and in the neat and tasty style in which they are fin- 
ished, would be quite an ornament for the sitting room or parlor. It consists 
of a cast iron frame, supported on a .stand also of cast iron, and of beautiful 
design. From the rear of tiie frame extends, u])ward and forward, an arm, 
similar to the arm in wliich ])lays the needle l)ar of a_ sewing macliine. Ver- 
tically, at the extremity of this arm and in a groovr cut for the jiurpose, works 
a spindle, to the lowei- end of which the upper end of the saw is attached by 



means of a set screw. Tliere is no second, vilirating arm like that on a sew- 
ing niacliine, but a finely tempered steel spring, screwed at one end fast to the 
cast iron frame and extending up under the stationary arm, and with a shape 
corresponding to it, has a tendency to keep tlie s])indle raised, and as the lower 
end of the saw, after jtassing through a small hole in a cast iron i)Iate, veneered 
with walnut, is secured to a reciprocating spindle below, it is always kejit at a 
proi)er degree of tension. The lower spindle is operated liy a couiinon crank 
pin on a Pitman pully, against the peripbery of which runs a larger wheel, 
operated by a crank and treadle. A balance wheel on the same shaft with the 
Pitman pulley, gives an easy and steady motion to the machine. This 
cut gives an excellent idea of the general appearance of the Xo. 1 F'leetwood 
Scroll Saw in complete running 
order. The No. 2 Fleetwood is 
similar to this in all respects, 
except that it is plainly finished, 
has no wheel guard, and tiie 
iron table is japanned instead of 
being veneered with walnut. 

Two very important attach- 
ments liave recently been added 
to these machines, either one of 
which is almost indispensal)le. 
The most desiral)le of the two is 
the boring and drilling machine. 
It can be readily secured to the 
machine, and will bore very 
rapidly a smooth, clean hole, 
one-eighth of an inch in di- 
ameter, or less, in wood or 
metal. By using the Morse twist 
drill, which is provided for each 
machine, and running at a very 
rapid motion, the most delicate 
piece of wood can be bored 
without splitting. The drill can 
be started or stopped in a mo- 
ment, and can be used separately 
without taking out, or even 
checking the saw. The other 
attachment is called a "blower," 
and is a very neat and service- 
able little contrivance for keep- 
ing the lines of a pattern that is 
being sawed free from sawdust. Its great simplicity and freedom from de- 
rangement arc not the least of its merits. It consists of a brass cylindi'r, fast- 
ened securely to the guide of the upper saw s[)indle, with a plunger or piston, 
and head, which fits on, and is secured to the top of the spindle. When the 
machine is in motion the jiiston works rapidly uj) and down in the brass cylin- 
der, and at every downward stroke a strong puff of air is emitted at a hole in 
tlie lower end of tlie cyiinik'r, and l)eing aiint'd diivctly at the pattern, etiect- 
ually clears it of all dust, vtv., leaving tln' lines pt'riectly distinct. The whole 
weight of the No. 1 b^eetwood Saw, witli all tiie attachments, is only "id pounds. 
It is sold, comi)Iete, for .'r^'io.OO. 

In addition to the machine just di'scribed, iVh-ssrs. Trump Bros, make a chea|n'r 
saw, which they call the I )exti'r Scroll Saw. The general j>rint'iph> of the Dexter 
is the same as the Fleetwood, and, therefore, a description is unnecessary, the 
only important diflei'iMice being tlie substitution of wood in this machine for iron 
in till' other, and an arrangement by wliit'h the steel springs in the Fleetwood 
are dispensed with. The treadle is also made of wood, anil is a jieculiar and 
ingenious conliivauce, adniiiably adapted to the piirposi' to which it is put. 
Tlu! Dexter willuoldo as fine work as the l''lei'twooil,aiid has neiliur llu' drilling 




nor blowei' attacluiient, liut in all other rcsjiects it is (jnite u<]iiai toil, and is very 

well likt'd, Ix'inij;' c'dnsidcrably ciiea])er, and, 
tiiert'tore, within tlie ruacli of a great nianv 
who cannot secure tlie higher i)rieed machine. 
The saws used in these niacliines, l)einf>; the 
same in l)0tli, range in size from No. 000, wliicii 
are about 1-50 of an inch wide, and 1-100 of 
an inch thick, to No. 7, whicii are aI)out l-Ki 
of an inch wide and 1-50 thick. 

They send a great many machines to Eng- 
land, Germany, South America, Canada, Aus- 
tralia, Sweden, France, Spain, and Russia. To 
the last named country a recent consignment 
of 50 machines was shipjied, consisting of 26 
Fleetwoods and 24 Dexters, besides 6 Dexter 
emeiy grinders. On the 18th of November last, 
(I Dexter machines were sent to Australia, and 
aljouta month previous to this time 6 Fleetwoods 
were shipped to the same place. The capacity 
of tlie factory at present is about 7 Fleetwood 
DKXTKR MACHINE. and 10 Dextcr machines per day. Of the 

latter machine, which has only been in the market since the first of November 
1870, 1,300 have already been sold. Over 6,000 Fleetwood machines have been 
sold, the first 161 of which were manufactured at Port Chester, N. Y., where 
Messrs. Trinnp Bros, located temporarily before coming to Wilmington. 

During the past three years of general business depression, the factory has not 
been stopped once, and more it has been running on full time, week in and week 
out, sufficient orders being always on hand to keep all the men steadily at work. 
Letters literally pour in from all quarters of the country, containing incjuiries 
about the capabilities, price, &c., of the scroll saws, and the firm receive and 
dispatch daily a larger mail than any other business concern in Wilmington. 

A great many peo])le have an imju-ession that the scroll saws are merely toys 
and playthings for children and indolent people, which is entirely erroneous. 
The Messrs. Trump Bros, sell more machines to real artizans and hard work- 
ers, who want them for business purposes, tlian they do to amateurs, though they 
sell a large number to that class also. These machines W'ill do a large variety 
of work, of which one w^ould scarcely think them capable. They will saw bone, 
ivory, shell, gold and silver, zinc, tin, lead, and other soft metals. 


The extensive and well-known coach mannfixctory of Messrs. Cooling & Bro., 
is located in Wilmington, at Fourth and French streets, and is oneof the largest 
in the city. This firm make a specialty of heavy work, such as Victorias, 
Bratts, Chariotees, Clarences, Landaus, Landaulettes, and Coupes, and they 
have the recpiisite skill, experience, capital, and other facilities for succeeding 
in this branch. They manufacture carriages for the eastern, southern, and 
western markets, for New York and Philadelphia, and have often shipped them 
to Europe. Elegance of finish, stylishness, durability and lightness are the 
characteristics of their work. The large five-story manufactory now occupied, 
was erected at the time the business was first established. This was in the year 
1865, the firm name being Cooling & Lloyd, and the partners and founders of 
the business were Joseph N. Cooling and Isaac V. Lloyd. They continued to- 
gether until 1868, when Samuel Cooling was admitted to the partnership, and 
the style of the firm became Cooling, Lloyd & Co. Subsequently ]\Ir. Lloyd 
withdrew from the firm, and it assumed its present style, Cooling it Brother. 
Besides doing heavy work, they also construct light vehicles of every descrip- 
tion. They use the very best inaterial, which, combined with the highest me- 
chanical skill, has resulted in making them a name and a reputation almost 
world-wide. The proprietors are both practical, and superintend the minute 
details of their large manufactory. 




Tlie old eslublislicHl house of Messrs. Fliiiii A: Jackson, located at 21'J Mar- 
ket street, is the largest and most extensive estaljlishnient of the kind in Wil- 
uiin<'ton, or even in the State of Delaware. The business was founded in the 
year 1855 by the father of the present Mr. Flinn, and Mr. J. H. Jackson, now 
President of the Jackson & Sharp Car Manufacturing Company of \\'ilniing- 
ton. The present partners, Mr. J. R. Flinn and Mr. Jos. L. Jackson, took 
possession of the business in the year 1808, and have lieen conducting it suc- 
cessfully on a very large scale ever since. 

The premises of the firm on Market street are admirably adapted to the 
business, being in a very eligible location and easy of access. The building is 
25 feet front by 120 feetdeep, running through to Shipley street, every portion 
of which is occupied by the firm in the execution of their business. The prin- 
cipal articles kept in stock are stoves, heat- 
ers, ranges, table cutlery and wooden ware, 
and all kinds of house-keeping articles. 
The stove, heater and range department is 
stocked to repletion with everything i)er- 
taining to a tirst-class establishment. Their 
assortment of stoves is always large, and 
comprises the latest improved styles for 
kitchens, parlors, dining-rooms and halls. 
They make all kinds of heaters, and imt 
them up at short notice. They make a 
specialty of vessel work and galley furni- 
ture, and they employ in all departments 
from fifteen 'to twenty-five hands. They 
employ competent workmen and can do 
the very best of work promptly and to 
the satisfaction of those who entrust them 
with an order. 

Some idea of the business conducted liy 
this firm may be formed when it is stated 
that thev keep on hand a stock worth from 
$20,000 'to $30,000, and that their sales in 
one year have amounted to over $80,000. 
They do the greater part of the work in 
Wilmington and vicinity of heating dwell- 
ing-houses and public buildings. Both 
members of the firm have had a long ex- — " 

perience in this and other departments of their business, and the most minute 
details of the same come under their supervision. IMessrs. Flinn iS: Jackson 
are natives of Wilmington, and are well and favoraiily known in the city and 
througiiout the State of Delaware, as honorable and relialile Imsiness men. 

Their salesroom on the first fioor is conveuii'Utly arranged and everything is 
carried out in a systematic order. J^-ery inch of space is occupied here with 
the stock on hand, and the customers of this firm are always sure of getting 
what they want. 


Two miles lielow Wiiniinglou is the Delaware .luucliou, wheri' the Delaware 
Rail Road, or t lie Delaware Division of liie V. \V..V 1!. K. K., intersects willi the 
main line. The cars from the main Tnn' are run over these tracks, and passen- 
gers are transferred from (me road to tlie other without ehnuge of cars. Tlie 
Delaware Rail Road has its terminus at Debnar, and is nearly one luin<lred miles 


long. It traverses wliat may be called the garden of the United States, and 
more peaches, strawberries, cherries, and other fruits and vegelables arc raised 
along and carried over this rail road, for its length, than on any otlicr road on 
the Western Continent. The State of Delaware, or the Peninsula, as it is often 
called, is especially a great peach grovying country, and in tlie peach season 
thousands of baskets of this luscious fruit are shipped by the car load daily to 
Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Baltimore and other large cities. During the 
last ten years, ending October 31, 1876, 33,208 car-loads of jieaches, and 4,551 
loads of berries have been shipped over the Delaware Kail Koad and its 
branches. Daring that period the greatest fruit year in this section was 1875, 
when 9072 car-loads of peaches, and 905 car-loads of Ijerries were shipped by 
this road. 

The P. W. & B. Company have recently leased the Delaware Koad for a term 
of twenty-one years, and they operate it with their own cars, engines and em- 
ployes. Although the road branches of!" at Delaware Junction from the tracks 
of the P. W. & B. Rail Road, yet this Company own the road as far as French- 
town, on the Delaware division, and this branch being direct from Wilmington 
by way of the main line, and running through New Castle, the county-seat of 
New Castle county, is known as the Ncav Castle & Wilmington Rail Road, as 
far as New Castle, and below tliat point as the New Castle & Frenchtown Kail 

At Newport Station is the village of Newport, four miles from Wilmington, 
thirty-one from Philadelphia, and fifty-two from Dover. Newjjort is a village 
of farmer.s, chiefly, a portion of whom live in the compactly built part of the 
town, near the depot, and the remainder are scattered at short intervals for the 
distance of a mile or so, in either direction, particularly on the north, on the 
same side of the rail road as the town. There is, however, two or three im- 
portant manufacturing establishments in the vicinity, but the people depend 
for the most part on their rich and well cultivated farms for a livelihood, no 
small share of their products, (among them fine fat beeves, vegetables, fruit, 
poultry, &c.,) finding their way to the Wilmington market. Newport has a 
bank, three churches, a public school, and about 500 inhabitants, characterized 
by a good degree of enterprise and wealth. The industries of the place consist 
of two rolling mills, a spice mill, a woolen mill, and a flour mill. There is 
also a hotel here called the " Farmers' Hotel." 


About three-quarters of a mile north of this station is the village of Stanton, 
on the north side of White Clay Creek, just above its junction with Red Clay 
Creek. It is a small village, containing about 50 dwellings, but is delightfully 
located in the midst of a farming community, with fertile and highly cultivated 
farms, most of the people in, as well as around the village, obtaining their live- 
lihood by agricultural pursuits, being engaged in both general farming and in 
raising produce for the market. There are, however, a number of manufac- 
turing establishments here, among them the woollen mills of James H. Taylor, 
at which a number of persons in the village, male and female, find employment. 


The celebrated flouring mills of Messrs. Tatnall & Kiehardson, of Wilmington, 
a sketch of which is given in this book under the head of "Wilmington In- 
dustries," is located here. Stanton is six miles from Wilmington, and almost 
directly west from it. It is about the same distance from New Castle, the 
county-seat of New Castle county, and is sixty-four miles from Baltimore and 
thirty-three from Philadelphia. 


The next station reached after leaving Stanton is Pencador, thirty-eight miles 
from Philadelphia and eleven miles from Wilmington. It is located in a com- 
munity of rich farms and milk and butter dairies. There are also numerous 
fruit farms in the vicinity, and the country hereabouts is considered the most 
beautiful and picturesque part of the State of Delaware. The farmers are 
thrifty, and their farms are well stocked and cultivated in the highest style of 
modern American farming. 


About a mile from the rail road depot is the pretty village of Newark, with 
one of the finest locations in the State of Delaware. The view toward the south 
is a mild and delightful one, stretching far across the summit of the Delaware 
Rail Road, almost, or quite, to the banks of the Delaware river, and southward 
indefinitely. On the north and northwest, the ridges and summits of the Penn- 
sylvania mountains rise in view and spread before you an extensive, varied, and 
most beautiful landscape scene. It is not so grand and picturesque as some that 
might be named, but sufficiently so to please the eye and prevent anything like 
an impression of lameness, while for variety, loveliness, and, to some extent, 
sublime beauty, it is rarely excelled. 

The main street of Newark is straight, broad, and of considerable extent, and 
might be made a beautiful street. Some of the residences and other buildings 
are neatly and tastefully built. The town contains two well-known and cele- 
brated institutions of learning: the Newark Academy, under charge of Rev. J. 
L. Polk, and the Delaware College, with Dr. Purnell as President. The Col- 
lege buildings have a pleasant and somewhat elevated location, standing ili- 
rectly at the head of the road, or street, that leads to the depot, and command- 
ing an open and most delightful view in all directions. The town also contains 
a bank, a paper mill, a woolen factory, a carriage factory, an agricultural imple- 
ment establishment, and some other manufactories, with a fair number of arti- 
sans and quite an amount of local trade. Newark is situated in the western 
part of White Clay Creek Hundred. The Pennsylvania tS; Delaware Rail Road 
runs through the eastern end of the town. It is about I'J miles from Wilming- 
ton and 5 from Baltimore, and has a population of about 1500. 

Delaware College isa characteristic feature of Newark, and is one of the most 
popular institutions in this part of the country, t)f which Hr. \\'n\. H. Purnell 
is President. There is no better locatiou in the ((lunliy tni' an institution of 
learning than Newark, a <|niel reliied village, iVee iVoiu all noise and bustle, 
and from tin' contaiiiinating inlluences which surr(iun<l iikiuv coiuitry towns and 
villages. The cliniate here is reiuarkably mild and lie;iltlit"nl, and the College 
enjoys the liirther advantage of being situated at the head of the peninsula 


"formed by the Chesapeake and Dehiware Bays, at a point wliere the coninunii- 
cation is constant with Wasliington, Baltimore, Wihnington, and Philadelpliia, 
by tlie P. W. & B. R. R., and with ail i)ortions of Dehiware and the eastern 
shore of Maryland and Virginia by the Delaware Rail Road and its nnnierous 
branches. These rare facilities give the institntion the advantage of perfect re- 
tirement so requisite for study, coml)ined with ready and convenient access. 
The Delaware College is one of the very best institutions of the kind in the 
country, and its trustees and faculty are gentlemen of the highest standing and 
culture in the State of Delaware. Both sexes are admitted to the class-rooms, 
but young men only are permitted to room and board in the College buildings. 
Besides the usual classical and scientific courses, this College gives to young 
men of jjroper age and accinirements a thorough course of instruction directly 
pertaining to agriculture, which is of great benefit and enables them to con- 
duct the operations of a farm intelligently and i)r(jfitaljly. They enter into dis- 
cussions of the most improved methods of conducting the i)ractical operations 
of tlie farm, garden and nursery, to give the results of well-tried experiments, 
and to show how they nuist be conducted to make them of practical value. In 
carrying out this admirable design the College has the advantage of using the 
farm <jf the Professor of Agriculture, embracing aljont 70 acres of well im- 
proved land adjoining the town of Newark, containing meadow, tillage and 
pasture grounds, twelve acres in truck gardens, eight acres in small fruits and 
vineyards, five acres in apjiles, jiears, peaches, and i)lums, and the whole i)lace 
well supplied with stock, tools, and farm machinery. 

Newark Academy was incorporated in 1769, and has Ijcen in successful opei-a- 
tion for over one hundred years, occupying for a long time the position of the 
only literary institution in this region. Though for many years it has had 
competitors on every hand, it has still sustained its high character, and has re- 
ceived the confidence and patronage of a large section of country. Miss Cham- 
berlain has l)een the Principal of the school for a number of years past, but 
Rev. J. L. Polk, of Newtown, Md., has recently been elected to fill that position 
and will take charge in September next. 


Elkton is the county-town of Cecil county, and is pleasantly situated at the 
head of Elk river, a small winding stream, navigable to its head only for the 
smallest craft. The population of Elkton is 2000 persons, who are, for the 
most part, progressive and enterprising. The town has a Court House, Ijuiltin 
1791, with county offices, county clerks. Sheriff; Register and Recorder, and 
County Connnissioner. It has a National Bank, called the "National Bank of 
Elkton," of which James Tome, Esq., is Pi-esident, and Charles B. Finley, Esq., 
Cashier. Owing to Elkton being the county-seat, it is a field for the talent of a 
number of legal gentlemen, many of them of marked ability. Judges Wicks, 
Robinson and Stamp sit on the bench during sessions of court. The county 
has recently erected here a large and commodious jail, which will meet all its 
requirements for many years to come. The Lodge of Odd Fellows own a large 
building here : the upper story contains the apartments of the lodge, the second 
is a large hall for holding entertainments, while the lower floor is used as offi- 
ces for lawyers and others. The Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Cecil 
County also has its otiice on the first floor of this buildiiiii'. Mr. T. \. Ellis is 


Secretary, and Mr. Wni. Torbert, President of tliis reliable C'()in})any. There is 
also a lodge of Knights of Pythias at Elkton, and churches of the Methodist, 
Presbyterian, Episcopal, and Catholic denominations. The town contains four 
hotels, as follows: Howard House, William Falls, proprietor; Felton House, 
O. Clemson, proprietor; Farmers' and Mechanics' Hotel, J. ]>. Price, i)rnprie- 
tor, and the Kail Road Hotel. 

Elkton contains about half-a-dozen first-class stores, dealing in merchandise 
of various kinds, with a number of smaller ones. The town for its size, is well 
supplied with newspapers, having two county papers published within its bor- 
ders : the Cecil Democrat and the Cecil Whig, both ably conducted, and both 
circulating largely in Cecil county. Mr. G. W. Crarkshan is edit(jr of the 
Democrat, and Mr. H. R. Torbert of the Whicj. The Post-office at Elkton is in 
charge of a lady, Mrs. M. M. Mahan being post mistress. There are two drug 
stores in the town, and the following physicians: Drs. H. H. Mitchell, C. M. 
Ellis, R. H. Tuft, Jas. H. Frazer, and J. H. Jamar. Quite a number of prom- 
inent men reside in the town and vicinity, among whom may be mentioned Ex- 
Gov. James B. Groonie, Hon. Hiram McC'ullough, Ex-Member Congress, and 
Hon. Alex. Evans, Ex-Member Congress. Ex-Postmaster General Jolin J. 
Creswell, and Rev. .Tames McTntire, Collector of Internal Revenue, reside in 
handsome country seats near the town. A stage runs from Elkton to Chesa- 
peake city, which is six miles south of Elkton. There is another stage which 
runs to Cherry Hill, four miles to the north, and thence to Lewisville, Pa., 
which is 9 miles north of Elkton. Both stages meet the early morning trains 
from Philadelpliia and Baltimore and carry the mail. 

There are several important manufacturing establishments in Elkton and vi- 
cinity. On two small streams, having a good water power, there are situated 
mills and factories from one to six miles from the town. The paper mill, at 
which all the paper used in printing the largely circulated and well-known 
Philadeli)hia Public Ledger, is located on one of these streams about four miles 
from Elkton, and is under the supervision of Mr. Harry Carter. The Ledger's 
inunense circulation, nearly 100,000, consumes the entire production of these 
mills. There is also a paper mill here, operated and ownetl by Mr. J. P. Car- 
ter, which makes the paper for the Baltimore Sun. Messi-s. Harlan & P>ro. 
oiK'rate another paper mill in the vicinity, though their production is of a 
coarser grade of pajjcr than the two referred to above. About two miles from 
Elkton are the rolling mills of the McC'ullough Iron Company, who also run 
several other mills in different localities. The factories of the Elk Mills Com- 
jiany are situated four miles north of the town, where a large (piantity of linen 
dia))er, for table cloths, is manufactured. Win. V. P>aldwin is President, and 
Daniel L. I'aldwin Secretary and Treasurer of the Company. Tlie Rail Road 
station of (lie 1*. \V. iV 1>. Company at I^ikton, is a lirick building one story 
high, Mild is designed and liuill sonietliing siniil;ir to tlie depot at ( 'lii'sti'r, Pa., 
on this road. I'llkton is 1-") miles IVoiu I'hihidelphin, and alioul •").'> miles tVom 


;\l this station is loc;iled (be town of North l']asl, containing a population of 
1200. it is situated at the head of North Fast river, and derives its prosperity 
from its iiianul'aclures and aun-icnltiu-e. Tlie land in the viciiutv of North 


East is of good quality and adapted to tlie production of grain and liav, the 
latter of which extensive crops are raised, and in the market is rated above that 
produced in otlier sections. The land is kept under a high state of cultivation. 
Fruits and vegetables are grown in abundance, but are not extensively cultivated, 
most attention being given to the crops of liay and grain. 

The town of North P^ast has a public school and two private schools. It also 
has two cluirches — a Methodist and Episcopal. Rev. J. I!. AVilson is jiastor of 
the M. E. Church, and Rev. E. K. Miller of the Episcopal. It has two iiotels, 
the North P^ast Hotel, B. F. Tliomas, proprietor, and the Rail Road Hotel, 
Jacob (Gilbert, proprietor. It has seven stores dealing in groceries and general 
merchandise, witli numerous small shops and stores, three drug stores, and three 
])hysicians. The town has an Odd Fellows' Lodge, a Lodge of Red Men, and 
a Lodge of Mechanics, all having a large number of meml)ers. The i)ostniaster 
here is L. W. Thomas, faithful and efficient in his office. In the spring season 
shad and herring are caught in great numbers, and on either side of North 
East river are numerotis fisheries which give employment to a large num])er (jf 

North East has some important industrial establishments witiiin her limits. 
Tiie McCullough Iron Company, an extensive coi'j)oration manufacturing sheet 
iron, have large mills here, employing about 80 hands. They also own mills 
at Elkton, Md., Rowlandsville, Md., and Wilmington, Del., the President of the 
Comj)any being Mr. I). McDaniel. Fire brick and brick linings for stoves, 
ranges, &c., are manufactured by two companies, one called the f rreen Hill Fire 
Brick Company, and the other the Cecil Fire Brick Company, both of which 
manufacture extensively. The North P^ast Woolen Mills, of which Mr. H. C. 
Johnson is i)roprietor, manufacture cassimeres, flannels, jeans, tweeds, common 
and fancy stocking yarn, &c. Robert Whitehead owns a large mill near the 
town, and manufactures cassimeres and yarn. There are several flour and grist 
mills in the immediate vicinity of the town, and there is a steam saw mill in 
the town operated by Davis & Pugh, who also own a large lumber yard. 

A stage line runs from North East, carrying the mail and jjassengers to Bay- 
view, w'hich lies three miles to the north ; also to Zion, two miles north of 
Bayview, thence to the Brick Meeting House, still two miles further on, which 
is the end of this route. The McCullougli Iron Company own a large farm 
and cultivate it extensively. Other large farmers in the vicinity are D. Mc- 
Daniel, Walter Armstrong, and Wm. AVeaver. The P. W. & B. R. R. offers 
unequalled facilities for transportation both north and south. T^he obliging and 
efficient agent of the Comi)any here is Mr. G. W. C'osden. North East is fifty- 
two miles from Philadelphia and forty-six miles from Baltimore. The depot 
of the P. W. & B. Company at North East, is a frame structure, painted and 
papered, and jjresents a very creditable appearance ; the ladies' room especially, 
as it is carpeted and nicely furnished. The Com})any, at this station and at 
Elkton, have large warehouses to accommodate their freight traffic. 


Charlestown station is three miles sotuh of North P>ast. Near it is located 
the town of Charlestown, on the North P'ast River, a small town with a popu- 
lation of 400. It contains a Methodist Church, a public school, post office. 


hotel, (Cecil House,) and two stores. The projjrietor of the Cecil House is V. 
B. Alyard, and the post-master is \V. T. Richardson. Most of the jjcople of 
the town are engafijed in agriculture, and there are also a nuiiiher who gain a 
livelihood by fishing, the streams in the vicinity abounding in fish of various 

Though Charlestown is a small town, it is laid out regularly into squares and 
streets, but they are yet sparsely built u^jon. It is beautifully located on the 
west bank of the North East river, and commands a picturesque view of the 
Chesapeake bay for a distance of over twenty miles. It is admired by all visi- 
tors, and it has often been said that it is the most beautiful location in the State 
of Maryland for a town. You can stand in almost any part of Charlestown 
and take in, at a glance, the mouths of the North East, Elk, Sassafras, and 
Susquehanna rivers, with their hundreds of sails, as they empty their waters 
into the Chesapeake. It is a healthy location at all seasons of the year, and in 
the vicinity there are highly productive farms in the hands of enterprising and 
intelligent men. Mr. \V. T. Richardson keeps a first-class village store, with a 
fine stock of goods necessary for the wants of his patrons. A short distance 
south-west of the town the Seneca Point Club Company, of Pliiladelphia, own 
a fine farm, on which they have a very handsome and connnodious dwelling 
and club house, surrounded by tastefully laid out gardens and lawn, where they 
reside during the summer season with their families. Few places are as j)retty 
as this one, and the land is kept in a good state of cultivation. 


This station is located near a point of Chesapeake bay, and is six miles from 
Elkton, fifty-seven from Philadelphia, and forty-one from Baltimore. There 
are numerous fisheries along the bay, and large numbers of fish and oysters are 
shipped from this point. A new station house was erected at Principio last 
year, costing over $3,000. When first built it was consumed by tire l>efnre be- 
ing occupied, but it was immediately rebuilt again. 


This station and town of the same name is l)eautifully situated on the east 
bank of the Susquehanna river, near its mouth, and contains a j)(q)ulation of 
about 400, who are for the most i)art boatman and fishermen. .Another im- 
portant industry of the place is duck shooting, and large numbers of ducks are 
shot on the Susquehanna and shipped to the markets of our large cities. Perry- 
ville has a good hotel, which offers first-class accommodations for sport.smen 
and others who visit the town. The rail road here crosses the Su.^ipielianna 
river over a bridge a mile long, that being the width of the river at this pt)int, 
only about a mile from where it empties into the Chesapeake bay. The bridge 
over the Sus(juehanna consists of thirteen spans, and during the i)ast four or 
five years the wooden structure has been rephu'cd with one of iron. This is 
one of the hmgest and finest pieces of railroad bridge architectin-e in the world, 
and is buill in such a nuuuu'r as to be as safe as any pari of tlie road. 

Tiu' P. W. it !>. ('omi)any have a branch road from I'erryville lo Port I>e- 
posil, a distance of four mihs. Port i)eposit is liie li'riiiinus of tiu' IJallimoi-e 
Ceiilrai Hiiii lvoa<I, and a town of cousideralije inii>orlaiiee, liaviug a po]iula- 
tion .if alioiil -,()(H). 


Althongli Perryville is one of tlie oldest towns in the State, it lias made slow 
jirogress in improvements. It has beautiful farms surn)nndin,<>' it, and fine 
views are atibrded of the hay below. In the town there is one hotel, one store 
at present, a post office, two places of public worship, and one i>uhlic school. 
The P. W. & B. R. R. Company have, of late, improved their depot, and now 
have a very fine one, something similar to those on the suburban part of the 
road. There are beautiful flower gardens adjoining the depot, and just oppo- 
site is a s})lendid park, laid out by the Rail Road Company. The trees are 
well started, and lots are to be sold here to gentlemen from the city who desire 
to build suburban residences. A new rail road is being run through Perry- 
ville, called the Port Deposit & Columbia Rail Road, and when it is completed 
the inhabitants of the place look for their little town to " brisk up." The R. 
R. Company have a lai'ge watering house, with three stories of tanks at this 
point ; also an engine house and wood and coal sheds. The post-master at 
Perryville is Mr. W. H. Cole. 


Immediately on crossing the long bridge over the Susquehanna, the train 
stops at Havre-de-Grace. Havre-de-Grace is one of the most important towns 
in the northern part of Maryland and has a population of 3000, and the town 
is laid out along the river and very pleasantly situated. The fisheries of the 
place and duck shooting are among the important industries of the town. Like 
Perryville, Havre-de-Grace has good hotel accommodations for sportsmen who 
visit here during the shooting and fishing seasons. The duck shooting season 
lasts nearly all fall and winter, during which time the place is the resort of 
good marksmen, while there are others, natives of Havre-de-Grace, who make 
a business of shooting ducks, which, in good seasons, proves to be a very re- 
munerative one. 

The three principal hotels of Havre-de-Grace are the Haford House, J. F. 
Jones, proprietor ; United States Hotel, John P. Adams, proprietor ; Nixon 
Hotel, James Nixon, proprietor. The town lias a newspaper, the Havre-de- 
Grace Repvblican, a well conducted piublic school, and churches of the Metho- 
dist, Presbyterian, Episcopal, and Catholic denominations. Besides the ac- 
commodations oftered by the running of the P. W. & B. Rail Road through the 
town, it also has the advantage of transportation facilities up and down the 
Susquehanna river and Chesapeake bay by boats. Indeed, tliere are few towns 
that have equal facilities with Havre-de-Grace in this respect. 

The most prominent manufacturing establishment of the place is the large 
steam saw mill and sash foctory of M. O. DuBois, which gives emyloyment to 
about thirty-five M'orkmen. The lumber used in this factory is brought down 
the Susquehanna river in the log, and by raft from the great lumber region of 
Pennsylvania. At the factory it is manufactured into material of various 
kinds, to be used in the construction of dwellings and other buildings. D. M. 
Boyd and .Jesse Hilles are the leading coal merchants of the town, while a gen- 
eral store and mercantile business is carried on very extensively by J. Thomas 
Frize and Amos Spencer. Havre-de-Grace also contains about twenty smaller 
stores and saloons. It is sixty-one miles from Philadelphia and about thirty- 
seven from Baltimore. 



Tliis stMtinii is t\V(i and one-lialf iiiik's sdiitli <<i' Havi'e-(le-(;race, and is siln- 
ated in a conntrv district, about tiiirty-t'oiir and une-lialf iiiilfs from Baltimore. 
The Company have a neat depot at tliis point, but employ no agent, tlie busi- 
ness of the station not warranting that expense. A mile further on is Swans- 
burg station, but the Company have no agent here, and have not yet erected 
permanent buildings. 


At Aberdeen station there is a little village of the same name, with from 
seventy-five to one hundred inhabitants. It has a post office, two churches and 
a public school. Aberdeen is located in the eastern part of Hartford county, 
Md., and is about two miles from the western coast of Chesapeake bay. It is 
sixty-six miles from Philadelphia and thirty-two miles from Baltimore. Short 
Lane, a flag station, is a mile and a-half from Aberdeen, and is located in an 
agricultural district, while near the Chesapeake coast the inhabitants are en- 
gaged in catching oysters and tish. The best eating fish in the market are 
caught in the waters of the Chesapeake, and the oysters taken here are noted 
for their excellent (pialities in restaurants and dining rooms. 


Four and one-half miles from Aberdeen is the station at Perrymansville, a 
village of farmers, containing about 400 poi)ulation. It also contains a woolen 
mill, a sash and door factory, post office, public school, four churches, and 
some dozen stores dealing in merchandise of various kinds. Perrymansville 
is also in Hartford county, and the land in the vicinity is quite productive and 
devoted principally to raising crops of hay and grain. There is no part of the 
State of Maryland, or in fact any State, in which such large crops of hay are 
raised, and in the market it is generally rated above that produced in other lo- 
calities. The P. W. & B. Rail Koad offer excellent facilities for shipping the 
products of the soil to the large cities of the East and vSouth. Perrymansville 
has been one of the many towns and villages which the P. W. & B. Kail Koad 
has been the means of bringing into existence. The tracks run directly 
straight hereabouts for a distance of over ten miles, and a train of cars could be 
seen for a long distance, as there is nothing to break the view. From some parts 
of Perrymansville and its surroundings, the Chesapeake bay can plainly be seen, 
which offers a pretty view, while the scenery to the north of the town is also at- 
tractive and pleasing to an appreciative eye. Perrymansville is twenty-eight 
miles from Baltimore and seventy miles from Philadel|)hia. 


This station takes its name from the river of that name, wliich the rail road 
here crosses over an iron bridge al)()ut tliree-cjuarters of a mile long. Bush 
river, though nearly a mile wide, only runs about a distance of eight miles out 
from the l)ay. i)cing isolated fi'om tlie intiM-ior, tiiis station, iVom a business 
[joint of view, is of niinoi- imjiortani'c. 'l'ln' lisiiei-ies licrc are valuable and 
almost unlimited in extt'ul, lisli being caught ui'arly the wliole season round. 
During tiie early months of spring large numbers of these liuny inhabitants of 
the deep are sent to Philadeljihia and Baltimore. I'^tr those desiring to pass a 


few weeks in boating and tisiiing, Busii river otiers superior indiicenients, and 
many pei-sons avail themselves of the hospitality of tlie genial superintendent 
of the bridge, who occupies a palatial mansion pleasantly situated, in iirefer- 
ence to whiling away their holidays at more fashionable watering places. From 
this residence a fine view of the river is obtained, and as the eye glances tar 
out into the distance and meets the huge waves rolling hither and thither, 
gleaming in the sunlight, nothing prettier or more enchanting can be imagined. 
A broad beach suitable for bathing, forms another of the attractions of this 
place. There are wharves here where vessels and boats may load and un- 
load their cargoes. Bush river is about twenty-four miles from the city of Bal- 


Edgewood is situated in Harford county, twenty-one miles from Baltimore, 
directly on the crown of the ridge which divides the waters of the Gunpowder 
and Bush rivers, and equally distant from either, the distance being three 
miles. Although it does not rise to the dignity of a town, yet the country ad- 
jacent is very thickly settled. There is a school house, a post office, an express 
office, a hotel, a store, and several branches of mechanical trades carried on 
prosperously and evidently increasing in business. The rail road at this point 
presents a sight perhaps unparalleled in the State, if not in the country ; as far 
as the eye can reach, either way, it is a perfectly straight line. 

The geographical position of Edgewood station in relation to the interior of 
the county, gives it advantages in a business point of view, unequalled by any 
station on the road south of the Susquehanna. Bel Air, the county town, is 
about eight miles, (which gives this station about three miles advantage over 
any other,) and connected by a fine public road, over which a line of stages 
pass twice, daily. The section of country through which this road passes, as- 
cends, by easy grades, through a highly cultivated and extremely productive 
succession of farms, and ornamental grounds surrounding numerous country 
seats, and nearly every eminence which meets the eye is crowned with a hand- 
some residence, many of which have been erected by gentlemen engaged in 
business in Baltimore, and travel daily to and fro by the accommodation trains. 
The following post offices are supplied from Edgewood station : Abingdon, 4 
miles distant; Emmorton, Q\- miles distant; Bel Air, 9 miles; Hickory, 12 
miles ; Forest Hill, 12 miles ; Thomas' Run, 9 miles. The efficient and 
courteous post-master at Edgewood is J. Lydings. 

This station derives additional importance on account of its proximity to the 
favorite feeding grounds of the water fowls, which migrate annually in im- 
mense numbers to this vicinity to partake of the bountiful supplies of wild 
celery and other marine plants produced in the shallow waters of Bush river 
and its tributaries. It is here the canvas-back procures that food which im- 
parts to its Hesh that peculiar flavor so inviting and pleasant to the palate of 
the epicure. As a matter of course, the congregating together of such immense 
numbers of aquatic fowls, attracts a large number of gentlemen from Balti- 
more, Philadelphia, and (^ther cities as far north as Boston, to this .station for 
the purpose of indulging in tlie exciting sport of decoy shooting, in which they 
seldom fail to secure a large (piantity of excellent game. 



Two miles from Edo-ewood is Magnolia station, located in a very pretty i)art 
of the State of Maryland. The i)laee takes its name from the beantifid Mag- 
nolia trees which grow in the vicinity, and in the months of May and June 
yield the fragrant Magnolia blossoms, which are much sought after by all lovers 
of (lowers, and in ail our large cities sell readily at three and five cents per 
blossom. Magnolia is located near the center of a peninsula formed by the 
Chesapeake bay and Busli and (iunpowder rivers. Although located in a 
sparsely populated district, it has a post office and country store. The post- 
master, and also agent of the Rail Road Company at this point, is Mr. John H. 
Lytle, a very obliging and courteous gentleman. 


This station is situated on the east bank of (xuni)owder river, a short but very 
wide stream emptying into the bay about six miles below this point. The 
bridge of the P. W. & B. Rail Road, over Gunpowder river, is one of the prin- 
cipal ones on the road, and is over half a-mile long. It was formerly a wooden 
bridge, but it is being replaced with an iron one as fast as w^orkmen can make 
tlie change with the cars constantly passing over it. There are no better fish- 
ing grounds along the P. W. & B. Rail Road tlian those at Gunpowder, many 
fine species of fish being caught here every season. Gunpowder station is about 
80 miles from Philadelphia and about 18 from Baltimore. Immediately on 
crossing the river is IIarewood station. It is a stojiping })lace for freight 
trains and some passenger trains, but the Company have no agent here and 
have not yet erected permanent station buildings. 


This station, located in Baltimore county, Maryland, is 83 miles from Phila- 
delphia and 15 miles froin Baltimore, and takes its name from a gentleman who 
gave the Rail Road Com})any the land on which to build the station. The 
neighborhood around is quite thickly settled, and new houses are constantly 
going up, six having been erected since January last, 1877. Improvements are 
constantly going on, and before many years Chases will be one of the prettiest 
of Baltimore's suburl)an towns. Land in the immediate vicinity has risen in 
value in one year from $15 to $50 i)er acre, at which price it is l)elng rapidly 
bfaight up in lots for building purposes. 

There is a new wheelwright and blacksmith shoji at Ciiases, owned and run 
by Mr. Wm. Ulrich, who is doing a very good business. There are also four 
stores, tiiree churches, and three public schools in the vicinity. A number of 
gentlemen doing business in Baltimore own fine residences in the neighborhood, 
and go back and forth every day by the acconnnodatiou trains. Tlii' station 
building nf IJu' Coiupany is a neat sti'uclufc and has hitely been improved, 
having new huildiugs added {i> il and repainted inside and nut. Mr. f'rank P. 
Lewis, a proiuiNing young man ol' I'xeeiii'Ut aliility, is Iclegrapii opi-ralor and 
agent for the rail road. He is also assistant post-mastei', and diseliargi's iiis 
duties faithfully and satisfactorily. 

'i'he water and landscape st'cnery about Chases is indeed beautiful. TheGun- 
l>owder and Bird rivers, and Seneca and Dundee creeks, are all within one-half 


mile to two miles of the place. In these i-ivers and creeks fish are to 1)e found 
in abundance, and in the spring and fall from two to three car loads of fish are 
sent from Chases daily. These go to Pliiladelphia jirincipally, though some 
go to Baltimore. They are caught here by seines and comprise some fine 
species, such as Perch, Rock, Shad, and Herring. These waters are also used 
for wild-duck shooting, which is a very favorite sport with gentlemen from New 
York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, who, in the duck shooting 
season stay liere for several weeks at a time. The shooting season here is in 
the sjiring and fall, when the wild fowls come here in large numbers, and in 
winter and summer they go north to Canada. Some of the prominent gentle- 
men sportsmen who shoot in this section are Wm. P. Clyde and II. Foster Hig- 
gins, of New York; B. H. Knight, C. E. Claghorn, and 11. P. Sloan, of Phil- 
adelpliia ; (xeorge Small, P. P. Pendleton, Dr. Wm. II. Keener, of Baltimore, 
as well as many others from these cities of equal prominence. 

A characteristic feature of Chases is the handsome modern residence and 
grounds of Mr. Wilmot Johnson, a wealthy retired gentleman, whose home is 
often visited by a number of our distinguished statesmen, such as Senator Bay- 
ard, of Delaware, Hon. John L. Cadwallader, and others. There are a number 
of productive and highly cultivated farms in the vicinity and the surrounding 
country, from which there is sent a greal deal of produce to the markets of 
Philadeli)hia and Baltimore. 


After leaving Chases, the next stopping place on the road is " 13-Mile 
Switch," which is 85 miles from Philadelphia, and, as is imi)lied by the name, 
13 miles from Baltimore. It is only a stojiping })lace, however, no station 
buildings having been erected here yet. 


Tills station is 11 miles from Baltimore and 87 miles from Philadelphia. 
Near this place are the club and boat houses of the Maryland Yacht Club, 
which is a large organization comi)Osed of yoimg men from Baltimore. They 
own a large farm bordering on Middle river, which is kept for a sporting place. 
Besides this, there are other fine residences and productive farms in the vicinity. 


This station is two miles from IMiddle river, 89 miles from Philadelphia and 
9 miles from Baltimore. It is quite a thickly settled locality, though it can 
hardly be called a town, having but two stores, a post office, a church, two 
public schools, and a number of fine large residences and also some smaller 
ones. The post-master and agent of the Rail Road Company here is Mr. Wil- 
son Townsend. Within a mile and two miles of the place are some large and 
well cultivated farms, some containing as high as five and six hundred acres. 
This place takes its name from the stream of water here of the same name, 
wiiich the rail road crosses over an iron bridge of modern build. 


This is only a stopping place for trains on the east side of Back river, a wide 
shallow stream, over which the trains pass by a tine iron bridge. It is the in- 


tention of the C'ompany to erect station buildings liere at an early day. Dur- 
ing the oyster season, a nnniber of oyster boats come np Back river from the 
bay and transfer their loads to the cars, to betaken to New York, Philadeli)hia, 
and Hoston. The Chesapeake isaliout nine miles <listant from this point. It is 
a widely known fact tliat the oysters taken from the Chesapeake bay pos.sess a 
flavor superior to those taken from any other oyster producing .section of North 
America. Their superior character is demonstrated by the fact that large (pian- 
lities are annually transplanteil into European waters l)y foreign dealers. It is 
estimated that 25,000 ])ersons are engaged in catching oysters in ^laryland 
waters, and about 50,000,000 l)ushels of the bivalves are annually taken. 


At this point, 4 miles from I)altimore, connection is made with the Baltimore 
& Potomac Rail Road by the Union Rail Road, through a tunnel under the 
city. Passengers for Washington and the south go right througli on this road, 
while passengers for Baltimore and the west are taken to the President street 
depot, where connection is made with the Baltimore & Ohio Rail Road. The 
Baltimore &. Ohio is one of the great trunk lines, and has also a branch road 
from Baltimore to Washington. Freight connection with tlie Baltimore <Sr 
Ohio Rail Road is made via. ferry transfer, between Canton and Locust Point. 
Bay View is the last station or stopping place (there are no station buildings 
here) on the road before Baltimore is reached. 


Baltimore, the soutiiern terminus of tiie Pliiladelphia, Wilmington iV: Balti- 
more Rail Road, is one of the great commercial seaports of our Atlantic coast. 
It ranks the fifth city in the United States in regard to population, and has 
nearly 300,000. It is connected by rail roads with every part of the United 
States, and being located on a point of Chesapeake bay, has an excellent harbor 
for vessels and boats of every kind. The bay is crowded with boats, barges, 
and sailing vessels, as well as steam vessels of every class, all of wiiich move 
merchandise in immense quantities, and at the lowest minimum of cost. 

Baltimore, like Philadelphia, is a great manufacturing city, and the several 
streams which How over the edge of the hilly I'onntry back of the city, aHbrd 
innnense water-power for the tlonr mills, cotton factories and iron works. It is 
also the chief i)lace for the export of tobacco, flour and oysters. But the pack- 
ing of oysters, truils, and vegetables is the most important industry ot Balti- 
more, over two hundri'(l houses in the citv lieiug engaged in this l)usiness, wiio 
shi]i their goods to almost evei'y part of thi' civilized world. It was here that 
this great industry had its birth some twenty-live or thirty years ago, and from 
the smallest beginning it has assumed gigantic pro])ortions, in which millions 
of capital arc invested, and giving lucrative employmeiU to many thousand in- 
dividuals. The unlimited sujjply of oysters furnished by the Chesai>eake bay 
and its Iribularies, and the close proximity of llalliniore to the great fruit 
i;ro\viug euuiities of Del.'iware and .Maryland, and the uuNurjiassi'd rail and 
water facilities for the rapid transit of freights, give, to tiiose engaged in this 
line of business in this city, advauliiges possessed by no other on the globe. 
And it is a source of pride and satisfaction to llalliniore to point to the fact that 



in no other city can hermetically sealed goods be so promptly and satisfactorily 
furnished, as regards excellence of quality and superiority of flavor, as those 
" put up" by the leading houses in their respective lines. This fact, no doubt, 
is due in a great measure to the i)ractical experience of the men engaged in 
the business, and to the enormous cpiantities of these articles "packed," not only 
for home market, l)ut to supply the increasing demands from Europe, and a 
general knowledge of the wants and peculiar tastes of the people at home and 
abroad. Since the process of canning has been introduced, oysters, fruits and 
vegetables have become a common table article, and are no longer considered 
luxuries, but are actual necessities, as tliey are cheaii and palatable, and add 
materially to tlie liealth and comfort of the people of the civilized world. 

The streets of Baltimore are laid out in regular order, and are wide and kept 
remarkably clean. The city is well supplied with hotels, and has five or six 
of the l)est that can be found in the country. The depot of the Philadelphia, 
Wilmington & Baltimore Rail Road, on President street, is a fine structure, and 
conveniently reached by several lines of street cars. 

As our description of the P. W. & B. Rail Road virtually ends here, we will 
give a short sketch or review of the road entire. It operates lines of road as 
follows : Main line, 96 miles ; Port Deposit branch, 4 miles ; Delaware Rail 
Road, N. C. & W., N. C. & F., Smyrna branch, and Southwork Rail Road, 98 
miles, making a total of 198 miles operated by the Company. In addition to 
this it has a direct and controlling interest in the Phil'a & Baltimore Central 
Rail Road and Chester Creek Rail Road. It is, moreover, part owner in the 
Junction Rail Road, the ccmnecting link between its own lineand those of other 
roads in Pliiladelphia. The main line is the only direct route between Phila- 
delphia and Baltimore, and consequently the avenue for Washington traffic to 
and from Philadelphia, New York and the east. 

The capital stock of the P. W. & B. Company proper is $11,536,250, and the 
dividends paid thereon since 1865 have been 8 per cent, perannum. In e(iuip- 
ment, f^icilities to passengers, and general appointments for doing its work, it is 
justly claimed that the road is second to none in the country. Its rolling stock 
and motive power have received the highest commendation from other and 
larger corporations, as well as from the public. It is furnished with a profu- 
sion of iron bridges of eminent manufacture, steel rails, self-adjusting .steel 
frogs and steel crossings, Wharton switches, safety signals, double track all the 
way, stone and gravel ballast, both Westinghouse and vacuum train brakes, 
Miller couplers and platforms, and hot water heaters for its cars. In the spring 
of 1876 the Philadelphia terminal facilities were improved to suck an extent as 
to leave apparently no further room for increasing the comforts and convenience 
of passengers. Large and beautiful waiting rooms, offices and dining rooms, 
all the newest methods for receiving, loading and dispatching trains, a systematic 
and convenient arrangement of general offices on the second floor, all combined, 
constitute a model passenger station in its truest sense. The new freight depot 
at Philadelphia, is not only the best arranged for shippers, but is one of the 
finest exhibits of rail road architecture in the country. This road has shown, 
during the past season, a capacity for transporting at least six times the ordi- 
nary amount of through and local travel, and that without injury to a single 



In trunk line controversies tiie P. W. A B. Road lias borne no part, bnt has 
inerited and received the good will of nil conijieting rail road Companies hv its 
policy of impartiality. Holding the key to all southern travel, by rival lines, 
the difticulties to be met are self-evident. The Philadelphia, Wilmington & 
Baltimore Rail Road Company may be said to embrace in its Delaware Divi- 
sion the entire peninsula, composed of the State of Delaware and the eastern 
shore of Maryland, such division being the main and, in fact, the only artery 
opening up that region, and furnishing a direct route for transportation to the 
principal markets of the country of the vast crops of peaches, berries and 
other small fruits, for which it is noted. In the season of 1875 there were 
collected and forwarded to New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago, and other cities, over 9000 car loads, or 4,538,000 baskets of 
peaches, besides more than 900 car loads of l)erries, &c. This Company has 
pursued steadily, for more than ten years past, the policy of charging to "op- 
erating expenses," instead of to "construction account," its large outlay for bet- 
terments. In this way, without increasing the stock ujion which dividends are 
to be ]iaid, or the debt upon which interest must be paid, it has changed nearly 
all of its ii'oii rails into steel rails, its wooden bridges into iron lirjclgrs. in- 
creased its station acrdiiiniodations \eiy largely, addi,'(l cigliiy-two per cciii. lu 
its loeomotivi'.-- .-lud torty-liiree per ceiU. to its passeng<'r r;ir »_'i|iiiiiiiieiii. and 
forty-eight pei- cent, to its tr-eight car e(]uij)mem. In accomplisliing tin'>f im- 
provements, il has added to the value of tlie [iroperty tully tiiirty-tivf [icr cent, 
of the ea|)ital stock, wliile paying for il all from annual receipts. In this w.iy 
its capital stock now stands at so small an aggregate, compared with the value 
of its property, that it may expect to pass unscathed through periods of even 
greater depression than the present one. Moreover, it is the owner of so much 
valuable property outside of its own road, that the interest tipon itssmall funded 
debt is met by tlie income from these outside investments. Taken altogether, 
the Philadel{)hia, Wilmington & Baltimore Rail Road Company is one of the 
most i)rosperous in the country. It is managed by gentlemen who thorottgiily 
understand the business of railroading, and who have been connected with the 
road for years. The men who run the passenger and freight trains up and 
down the road know every inch of it. The conductors are polite and attentive 
to passengers, and their skill is shown in the fact that accidents are of very rare 
occurrence. The principal depot of the Company, at Broad street and Wash- 
ington avenue, Philadelphia, is but a few blocks from Broad and ChestmU 
streets, and is reached in 10 or 15 minutes by several lines of street cars. Tlie 
following are the principal ofhcers of the Company : President, Isaac Hinckley ; 
Vice President, Enoch Pratt; Superintendent, II. F. Kenney ; Treasurer, A. 
Horner; (Jeneral Ticket .Vgent, Oeorge N. Dadinan ; Master of Transporta- 
tion, Charles K. Ide ; (General Tliroiigh Freight Agent, .John A. Wilson ; Mas- 
ter of Machinery, S. A. liodgman. 




One of the most prominent and interesting establishments in Baltimore, and 
one of the lai-gest of its kind in the United States, is tliat of Robert Lawson 
& Co., located at 277 West Baltimore street. This old established house is ex- 
tensively engaged in the manufacture of saddles, harness, collars, trunks, &c., 
and importers and general dealers in saddlery hardware, whips, and horse 
clothing, whose sales and warerooms at No. 277 West Baltimore street, are lit- 
erally crammed in every department with the most complete assortment of 
goods of their particular line that it has yet fallen to our lot to inspect. 

Tlie first tioor of this building is used exclusively as a salesroom, and is ad- 
mirably arranged for the display of their large and varied line of goods, being 
large and roomy, and every facility is afforded tiie i)urchaser for examination 
and inspection. 

On the second floor is the trunk department, and here are to be seen trunks 
of all kinds, shapes and sizes, from the dignified Saratoga, that would throw 
many a belle into ecstacies, to the plain and less assuming packing trunk. 

The saddle and harness department is on the third floor, which is completely 
filled with these goods of all qualities, handsomely made, and elaborately orna- 
mented and stitched. Here we were shown a very ingenious and unique con- 
trivance, with 230ckets on each side, made to fit over tlie hind part of the sad- 
dle, acting as a housing, and is in every respect a great improvement on the 
old-fashioned "saddle bags," so much in vogue years ago. 

Everything on these floors shows systematic management — " a place for each 
kind of goods, and each kind in its place " — so that when an article of a certain 
kind or size is retjuired, it can be found without a moment's delay. The great 
variety and styles of saddles and harness here displayed, are such that the most 
fastidious or whimsical could make a selection. The fourth floor is devoted to 
the manufacture of collars. In this line this firm make a specialty, and have 
achieved a standard reputation. The factory, wliich is the largest one of the 
kind south of Newark, N. J., is located at N(j. 16 McClellan street, and is a 
substantial brick structure, five stories in height, including the basement, the 
several departments of manufacture throughout the liuilding being so situated 
a.s to become systematized in all their arrangements, and presents a scene of 
constant activity, the large numl^er of employes applying themselves with a 
cheerful and willing energy to carry forward, with promptness and dispatch, the 
various tasks assigned them. 

In the basement all tiie sawing and pre])aratory work for the production of 
trunks is performed, and contains a number of circular and cross-cut saws and 
other machinery for cutting out the work, which is tiien transferred to tlie first 
floor, where it is propeidy dressed and fitted togetlier. Here are jig saws, 
moulding machines, &c., all contributing to the rapid and tiiorough execution 
of the work. We were pleased to note in this department that particular at- 
tention was paid to the drength, as well as to the graceful appearances of the 
trunk boxes ; from here these boxes are conveyed to the seasoning room where 
they remain at least a month, or until they become thoroughly dry. The sec- 
ond floor is entirely occupied by skilled workmen, who give to these boxes 
their neat and elegant appearance. Thisiscalled the finishing department, and 

108 riiiLADf;ia'niA, \vilmix(;t()n and Baltimore 

here tlie trunks are lined, covered, and receive their iron hands, locks, leather 
trinuninffs, &e. This room is siipidied with every appliance, so as to make a 
perfectlv neat and dnrahle trunk when tinished. In ynnnt of beauty, elegance 
of finish, and moderation of i)rice, these goods are not surpassed by tliose of 
any other establishment here or elsewhere. 

The third iloor of this extensive building is used exclusively for the manu- 
facture of harness, and here we were shown some si)lendid specimens of work- 
manship, and nothing could surpass the style and finish of these articles, which 
was done in the most elaborate manner, all the skill and ingenuity of the most 
accomplished workmen having been brought into recpiisition. P^very labor- 
saving maclune and device adaptable to this line of manufacture is here in oj)- 
eratiou. Machines for sewing and stitching, presses, dies, punches, t^c, driven 
by a Baxter engine of great power, and it is really marvellous to see with what 
rapidity the work is turned out. Traces, bridles, nuirtingales, gig saddles, in 
short, everything in the way of harness, or that appertains to harness, either 
single or double, elaborately mounted and stitched, and all made in the best 
workmanlike manner. In this dei)artment are also made rosettes, &c., for orna- 
menting harness ; also trunk handles, lifts, straps, &c. We would here remark 
that Messrs. Robert Lawson & Co. were the first to introduce the manufacture 
of gig saddles on an extensive scale in Baltimore. These goods being made of 
the best heavy grained and patent leather, handsomely stitched and ornamented, 
the mountings of some of these are of gold, silver, nickel, electro pLite, on 
composition or iron, and made to suit all classes of trade. 

The most interesting department is on the fourth floor, which is devoted to 
the making of saddles, and here were more labor-saving appliances for cutting 
out, stitching, stamping, sewing, &c. Saddles of all kinds are made liere ; plain 
and ornamental of every design, for men, women, and boys. We here witnessed 
a most interesting operation, that of elaborately ornamenting saddles. Al- 
though the greater portion of this work is done by means of dies and machinery, 
the fine finishing touches are wrought by hand, in which operation it recpiires 
rare g(Jod judgment and dexterity. In this department tlie most skillful arti- 
sans alone are employed, and the result is seen in the immense salesrooms of the 
firm, in the artistic production there displayed.- 

While Messrs. Robert Lawson & Co. manufacture an immense quantity of the 
cheaper kinds of trunks, saddles, harness, &c., for a certain class of trade, they 
also produce large (quantities of high-class work, and make a specialty of fine first- 
class ordered work, for track and general driving purposes. At No. 17 South 
Sharp sti'eet, is the large warehouse of this firm, in which are stored the trunks, 
and it is filled to overflowing with these articles, and one's first impression 
upon entering this establishment is, that there are trunks enough here to last 
for vears, but such is the great trade of this house, that the vast quantities, piled 
ceiling high, would not supply the demand for a single season. Here we noted 
that the packing trunks, as they are called, are made of different sizes and lit 
one within the other, each nest containing six trunks. Another portion of this 
building contains the traveling trunks, trunks with zinc coverings, trunks with 
canvas coverings, Saratogas and fine trunks in great variety, of every kind, to 
suit all classes of trade. 

Mr. Robert Lawson, the senior nuMuber of this house has been engaged in 
this line of business .'>0 years, and has l)ei'ome noti'd among the leading, enter- 
prising and |)ublic-spirited citizens of Baltimore. He is a thorough and expe- 
rienced business man, fully conversant with every detail in the production and 
sale of this line of goods. 


The manufacture (if horse collars in Baltimore is carried on principally 
through the large manufactory of Messrs. F. (J. Maxwell Ai Co., located at No. 
IIG West Fayette street, with whom collar-making is a sjiecialty. This liouse 
is among theoldest in ikltimore, having been established in 18")4. Owing to 
the superior al)ility and care with which the business has been conducted, the 
superior <jualily and workmanshiii of the goods produird, and the popularity 


of the senior nieiaber of the firm, the business has steadily and rai)idly in- 
creased from year to year, and they now enjoy a large and lucrative trade 
through southern Pennsylvania and the States of Delaware, Maryland, Virgi- 
nia, North and South Carolina, and West Virginia. They also have an exten- 
sive retail city trade, and manutacture to order. The line of goods made here, 
consist of the Kay collar, tlie patent leather case collar, and the hack, carriage, 
dray, and common collars. These goods are all made by hand, no machinery 
being in use in any part of the establishment. 

All of the employes are thortmghly skilled workmen, each being proficient 
in his particular department, while the whole of the establishment is under the 
immediate supervision of Mr. F. G. Maxwell. The character of the goods 
made here are very poi)nhir with the trade and eagerly sought after, and very 
frequently they are largely sold ahead. The firm are prompt in filling orders, 
and scrupulously and conscientiously careful in filling all such, as if the pur- 
chaser were there himself. They occupy a prominent position in the mercan- 
tile community, and the reputation of their collars is well known in many sec- 
tions of the country. They are sold by the largest and most prominent sad- 
dlery hardware gt)ods houses in lialtimore, to whom Messrs. F. (}. Maxwell & 
CV). refer, at once showing the great reputation the manufactures of this firm 
have attained. 



The site of Philadelpliia was well chosen. It stands on a level plain, an 
area of one liundred and twenty-nine scpiare miles, near the junction of the 
Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, and less than a hundred miles from the ocean. 
The surrounding country is rich and fertile — a vast garden and granary. The 
climate is beautiful and pure, and the broad and regular streets laid out by 
Penn, have given a rare opportunity for the noble architecture for which the 
public and private buildings are famous. 

From the close of the Kevolution to the present time, the record of the city 
has been one of improvement. The United States Mint was established in 
1792 ; the first water works were completed in 1801, and superseded in 181-5 by 
the great reservoirs at Fairmount. To rehearse all the improvements, the re- 
sult of more than a-half century of enterprise, would be to make a catalogue 
far exceeding the limits of this summary. It is rather our purpose to give the 
reader a correct idea of Philadelphia as it is. 

The corporate limits of the city extend nearly twenty-five miles in length, 
and about six miles in breadth. Up to 1830 it was, in commercial importance 
and in population, the chief city in the United States; and although in these 
particulars it has been exceeded by New York, it has never surrendered its 
manufacturing supremacy. Its population, by the census taken in 1870, was 
stated to be 817,448, an increase of 143,426 since 1870, and an increase of 2o2,- 
919 since 1860. 

Though judged by population alone, Philadel])hia must be regarded as the 
second city of the United States, in other respects it may justly rank as the 
first. For nearly two centuries its order and cleanliness have been proverbial. 
Before its entire eastern front flows the noble Delaware, whose broad and deep 
waters might float the navies of the world. Vessels of the largest tonnage find 
it a safe and spacious harbor, and the distance of the city from the sea has 
ceased to be, in these days of swift steam communication, of the slightest dis- 
advantage, while it is an effectual i^rotection from those sudden storms that fre- 
(juently rage along the Atlantic coast. Tlu' wiiarves of the city extend more 
than four miles, and there is no finer harlior on our sialioard. To the west of 
the city flows the beautiful Schuylkill, a stream of no ordinary connnercial im- 
portance, yet more famous for its romantic loveliness. Few rivers are as pic- 
t>ires(|ue, and it has long been celebrated in song and story. The Fairmount 
AVater Works are on the Schuylkill, and are uiU'()ualle(l in extent and beauty by 
anv in tlii' eoinUry. The broad pavilions form a scene of singular lieauty. 

The grounds surrounding tiu' water-works are included in Fairmount Park, 
which comprises nearly thi-ee tlinusand acres cm the liauks of the Schuylkill 
river and Wissahickon creek. It is dividetl l>y nature into several sections, 
e;icli incsi'uting peculi;ii- attractions, and each within easy reach of the city by 
ntuuerous lines of railway. Nature left little for art to add to tiiis charming 
pleasure ground, lint upon its gentle unilnlations, crowded with majestic forest 


trees, broad roads have hci'ii constnictcd, wink' landscaiir yank'niiiL;- and arrlii- 
tecture liave subdued its wilder buauty. The Park t;dces its name iVom that 
part of tlie jiublic g-ronnils where the water works and the dldest of the present 
reservoirs are sitnati'd. Carson Pine, Areli, ( allowhill and \'ini' streets, and 
Fairmount avenue, carry passengers for a single fare, to one of the several en- 
trances to the Park. From tiie Fairnionnt basin, a line view of tlie f^cliuylkill 
river and the Park grounds nuiy be obtained. On the river above tbe dam, are 
the steamboat landings, from which one may go to the Zoological (larden, op- 
posite, or to distant parts of tlie Park, by water. The Schuylkill is spanned by 
some of the tinest bridges in the world. The new (irirard avenue bridge, made 
wholly of iron, and the Chestnut street bridge, are prol)alily unsurpassed in this 
country. In Januai'v, 1S76, the bridge over Market street, the first one to span 
the river, was totally destroyed by tire. Nothing was left standing but the pil- 
hirs, and on these a temporary bridge was erected in less than tliree weeks. 
The South street bridge, completed last year, is one of the longest in the world, 
and not only spans the Schuylkill, but also the tracks of the West Chester and 
Pennsylvania Kail Road Companies. Several other bridges span the river, as 
far as Manaymik. a inannfaeturing lii\\ii tweh'e miles from tbe I'ity. 

The regularity <>( the streets nf Philadelphia ei.ul rihiites nut a little tu its 
eleanlines> and health. They are hruad and air\'. ami tin' Ih'Iiscs haiidsDine 
and large. I'.ruad street is a magnificent ilnulevard. iiiiei|iialled tor breadth and 
length in any l'",iii(i|ieaii cajiital, and is destined to siif[iass in lieauty any street 
in .Vmerica. North of Fairmount avenue, and south of W'ashiugtou avenue, it 
is Ijecomiug the site of handsome residences and churches, and is more or less 
occupied by private residences near Spruce street. At Broad and Market 
streets, the new Public Buildings are being erected, and north of these, within 
two squares of Market street, are three costly churches, the new Masonic Tem- 
ple, and the New Academy of Fine Arts. Between Callowhill and Spring 
Garden streets, are the great Baldwin Locomotive Works, and other large in- 
dustrial establishments. C'hestnut street has been, in the past fifteen years, lit- 
erally rebuilt, and massive marble stores replace the unpretending brick houses. 
In its windows are displayed the goods of all countries, a bazaar of articles of 
ornament and use. W^alnut street is equal, if not superior to Fifth avenue in 
New York, in the magnificence of its private dwellings. Many of these houses 
are palaces, and their magnificent marble and granite fronts add immeasurably 
to the beauty of the .streets. A great proportion of the dwellings in Philadel- 
phia are owned by their occupants, even among the working classes. The sys- 
tem of loaning money on " groimd rent," wdiich once prevailed, helped work- 
ingmen to get homes for themselves, and of late years the Philadelphia build- 
ing and loan associations have enal)led thousands of men to jjurchase houses 
and pay for them in instalments, by one of the best systems of co-ojieration yet 

Notwithstanding the size of the city, nnieh exceeding the area of New York, 
rapid and cheap comuuuiication is ol)tained by the complete sj'stem of street 
railways; the passenger cars rim tit intervtils of a minute on all the jtriucifial 
streets, and the visitor can travel ten or twelve miles in an hour or two, from 
one suburb to another, at a cost of but ten or twelve cents. 

For the uuijesty and elegitnce of its ]itil)lic bitihlings, Philadeliihia basal- 


ways been distinguished, and many of these have a liigher interest than mere 
architecture can bestow. No Itnilding in America lias more interesting histor- 
ical associations than the State House. Within its wails, in the dark days of 
the Revolution, the American Congress assembled, and there the Declaration of 
Independence was proposed, discussed and signed. The room in which our 
Nationality was born, is still preserved with care, appearing as it did in 177(5. 
Frnm tlie steps of the door opening on the scjuare, the Declaration was first 
read to the people, and the famous bell that called them together, though no 
longer in use, is still exhibited in the Hall of Independence. Pictures of dis- 
tinguished Revolutionary heroes cover tlie walls. 

In institutions for the promotion of literature, science and art, tlie city is 
rich. The Philadelphia Library, established by Franklin, contains the largest 
and most valuable collection of rare books in America. Near it is the Mer- 
cantile Library, containing upwards of forty thousand volumes. The Franklin 
Institute contains an invaluable library of scientific works. The Academy of 
Natural Science has a museum of rare value, especially in conchology and fos- 
sils ; its collection of skulls is the largest in the country. Of medical schools 
there are ten, tliat of the University of Pennsylvania being the oldest in the 
LTnited States. The celebrity of these medical schools has, for half a century, 
drawn hitlier students from all parts of the country, and it may almost be said 
that the entire medical [jrofession of the United States has been educated in 
Philadelphia. There are upwards of five hundred public schools, and numer- 
ous colleges and academies. The number of pupils attending the })ublie schools 
of Philadeliihia in the year 1874, was 10S,()81, and the expenditures on account 
of public schools, was $1,607,736.81. The IJoys' Uentral High School is situ- 
ated at Jiroad and (rreen streets, and is valued, with its furniture, at $122,500. 
The (rirls' Normal vSfhool, a new building, is at the corner of Seventeenth 
and Spring (Jarden streets, and was completed last year (1876). 

The public squares, " the lungs of the city," are well distributed, and al- 
though but little money has been expended in their artificial decoration, except 
by the Philadelphia Fountain Society, they are jjleasant resting places in 
spring, summer and autunni, for thousands of peojile unable to go to the Park. 

The public amusements of the city have rapidly increased, and nearly all the 
princijial theatres and ministrel halls have been rebuilt within the past few 
years, and the interiors are superb and brilliant. The dramatic entertainments 
are of a high order, and unusual attention is given to scenic effects. The Acad- 
emy of Music is by far the finest in the country, and even superior in beauty 
and comi)leteness to the Grand Ojjcra House, in Paris. The immense audi- 
torium is lighted by a vast chandelier hung in the ciMitrc, and every appoiiU- 
inent is jjcrfect. 

The hotel system of Philadelphia has been revolulioni/,ed of late years, and 
the principal hotels are celebrated in the traveling connnunity for their luxu- 
rious and complete aiipointments. A nund)er of new hotels, esi)ecially to ac- 
commodate ('entennial visitors, have recently been erected, and the city now 
contains several of the largest hotels on the western continent. There are nj)- 
wards of four hundred churches in Philadelphia, many of beautiful architec- 
ture, such as ihc Callu'dral of Si. Peter and Si. Paul, ojipositi' Logan Sipiarc, 
wliicli idsl iiiori' llian ha H' a-niillion of dollars, and is oncof tlu' uolilcsl church 



edifices in the country; others, like Christ church, where Washington worship- 
ped, liave great historical interest. Bethany Sabbafli-scliool, under the super- 
intendency of John Wanamaker, tlie buildings of wliicli are located at Twenty- 
second and Bainbridge streets, is the hirgest in the world. The number of 
scholars gathered here on a Sabbath afternoon, number nearly two thousand, and 
the building can seat more than 3,000, which numl)er it often contains, as visi- 
tors from every part of the city, and even outside the city, come t» witness the 
school in session. 

The charitable institutions of the city are numerous; chief among them is the 
Almsliouse, a vast structure on the west side of the Schuylkill, capable of con- 
taining three thousand jjaupers ; another is the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, at Broad 
and Pine streets, wliich, during the year 1875, was increased to more than 
double its former size, and extends from Broad to Fifteenth street. The Penn- 
sylvania Hospital covers a whole square, the main entrance to which is on Eighth 
street, near Pine. 


The Girard College, located at Nineteenth and Ridge avenue, is an institution 
to which Philadelphians point with pride. Here, by the splendid bequest of 
Stephen Girard, (two millions of dollars,) hundreds of orphans receive a thorough 
education. The immense building is a noble si^ecimen of Corinthian architec- 
ture. The main building is surrounded by thirty-four columns, each fifty-five 
feet in height. The floors and stairways are composed of marble, and no wood 
is used except for the doors. The wings of the building are used for the resi- 
dence of the scholars and professors. From the roof of this immense building, 
a magnificent view of the city and the Schuylkill and the Delaware rivers may 
be obtained. 

South of Girard College is the Eastern Penitentiary, covering ten acres, and 
witli its massive walls and frowning turrets recalls some baronial castle. The 
system of solitary confinement necessitated this vast extent. The interior is of 
remarkable construction ; from a high tower in the centre, the officers of the 
prison can see at a glance the door of each cell, the ranges of the cells radia- 
ting from the tower to the high walls. A visit to this penitentiary is indispen- 
sable to the traveler who would study prison discipline. Near it is the House of 
Kefuge, intended to reclaim the vicious of both sexes under mature age. The 


children are educated in the ordinary branches of knowledge, and taught use- 
ful trades. The Gas Works are eight in number, the cost of the whole being 
about $3,000,000. The streets are lighted by about fifteen thousand public lamps, 
and gas is used in almost every private residence. There is no city in the United 
States equally well lighted. 


The United States Mint, on Chestnut street, near Thirteenth, was built in 
1830, and is a fine specimen of Ionic architecture. The mint contains an inval- 
uable collection of coins of every country and age. Amongthe othcri)ublic build- 
ings is the Custom House, formerly the United States Bank, a noble specimen of 
Grecian architecture. It was completed in 1824, at a cost of half a million of 
dollars. The Merchants' Exchange, at the corner of Third and Walnut streets, 
is a beautiful edifice of white marble,containing a spacious rotunda, and a fine com- 
mercial reading room, in which are kept on file the leading papers of the world. 
The new Chamber of Commerce, completed in 186(i by the Corn Exchange 
Association, is another magnificent building. Tlie principal room is one hun- 
dred and thirty-three feet long, ninety-one feet wide and thirty-five feet high, 
without columns. The architecture is of the Roman Doric order, built of brown 
stone, with a granite base. Carpenters' Hall is a building of rare historic in- 
terest; within its walls the first Congress in America assembled in 1774. The 
interior is preserved in its original condition. 



The new Public Buildings in course of erection at Broad and Market streets, 
attracts the attention and admiration of the visitor. When completed they will 
be unequalled by any buildings of the kind in the world. To give a detailed 
description of Philadelphia would be to make a volume of several hundred 
pages, while our space permits but a brief allusion to the chief attractions and 
advantages. The facts already given indicate a prosperity the more significant 
because of its steady and rapid progression. 




This firm, whose office is at 338 South Delaware Avenue, Philadelphia, are 
the managers of two lines of steamships ; one of them plying between Phila- 
delphia and Boston, and the other between Philadelphia and Providence. Both 
semi-weekly, and sailing from each port on the same days, Wednesdays and 
Saturdavs, — from Phihulelphia at 10 A. M., and from Boston and Providence 
at 3 P. M. 

The Boston line was established in 1852, and has been maintained through 
all the vicissitudes of business, and throughout our civil war, when many 
steamship lines suspended. It is now composed of the steamers Koman, Nor- 
man, Saxon and Aries, having large freight capacity and superior accommoda- 
tions for passengers. The voyage, of which many avail themselves during the 
warm season, has much variety. Through the Delaware river and bay 100 
miles; then along the Jersey shore till ofl'Bamegat, when the land disappears 
in the distance, and is seen no more till the eastern shore of Long Island conies 
in sight. After a few hours along this shore Block island api^ears and is 
passed, and soon after Gay Head at the entrance of the Vineyard sound. The 
course continues through this sound and along the shores of Cape Cod into 
Massachusetts bay, and across that to the beautiful harbor of Boston, which is 
entered on the morning of the second day, completing the voyage in about forty- 
eight hours. The steamers are of substantial build, and in all respects well ap- 
pointed, and their long immunity from disaster at sea is mainly owing to a 
strict supervision in port, keeping them always in good order and repair. 

This line and the one to Providence, R. L, connect at these points with many 
rail roads, and furnish a cheaj) and regular means of transportation to and 
fro between all points in New England and in the States of Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland. The agents of these lines are E. B. 
Sampson, Long Wharf, Boston, and George A. Kilton, I vis Wharf, India 
street. Providence. 


This College was established in the year 18()5, by the present Principal, 
Thomas May Peirce, A. M., and is, therefore, in tlie twelfth year of its success- 
ful operation. The design of the College is to afibrd every facility and advan- 
tage to young men for acquiring a thorough, practical business education, to 
qualify themselves to become merchants, accountants, bankers, and for business 
generally — to give them a start in life. This institution has been very success- 


fill ; in fact, its history is one of marked and distingnished success. Several 
times has it been necessary to increase its capacity for tlie accomnuKhition of tlie 
large number of students in attenthince, representing nearly every section of 
the country. It is loi'ated at 39 South Tenth street, in the most eligible part of 
the city. The difierent departments arc furnished in the most elegant and sub- 
stantial manner, all the desks, tables, counters, banks, business offices, &c., being 
manufactured to order at great expense. There are several distinguishing 
features of a general character connected with the organization of this College 
which are peculiar to itself, and by which the institution has acquired a national 
reputation for possessing unequalled facilities, in every department, for impart- 
ing a sound, practical business education. No young man can aflbrd to neglect 
opportunities whicli will so surely advance his interests. Whatever course in 
life he may mark out for himself, he cannot fail of being greatly benefited by 
such a thorough and practical knowledge of business as may be obtained at 
Peirce's Union Business College. Such an education will render him more 
competent to make money and keep it, less liable to make those mistakes which 
have ruined so many men, surer of employment if he deserves it, and able to 
transact his own business correctly and intelligently. 

No better evidence can be given of the superiority of the business training of 
this College, than the fact that it distanced all competitors at the late Centennial 
Exhibition, and was awarded the " Centennial Business College Diploma and 
Medal." The Diploma and Medal was awarded this institution September 27, 
1876, by the Commission to act as Judges on Education and Science. The fol- 
lowing are the details of the award : 

The following named gentlemen were appointed by the United States Cen- 
tennial Commission to act as Judges on Education and Science, at the Inter- 
national Exhibition, held in this city from May lOtli to Novendjer 10th, 1876: 
Hon. Andrew D. White, LL. D., President of Cornell University, Itiiaca, N. Y.; 
D. C. Gilman, LL.D., President of John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.; 
Hon. J. M. Gregory, LL.D., President of the Illinois Industrial University, 
Champaign, 111.; Prof. J. W. Hoyt, LL.D., United States Commissioner to tlie 
Paris Exposition of 1867, and President Judge on Education and Science at 
the Vienna Exposition of 1873, Madison, Wis.; Sir Charles Reed, M. P., Mem- 
ber of the London School Board, London, England ; Mr. Rene Fouret, of the 
firm of Hachette & Co., Publishers, Paris, France ; Juan Jose Marin y Leon, 
Colonel Royal Engineers, and Royal Commissioner from Spain to the Phila- 
delphia International Exliibition, Madrid, Spain ; Prof. Dr. Otto Martin Torell, 
Geologist, Sweden. After more tlum three months' careful examination of tiie 
various products submitted to them, they recommend Peirce's Union Business 
College to the proper authorities for award. 

Certified Copy of Report of Judges.— The United States Centennial 
Commission announce the following report as the basis of an award to Peirce's 
Union Business College, Philadeli)hia, Penn'a, for Penmanship, Book-keeping 
and Publications, and work showing courses of instruction : 

Report. — The exhibits atlbrd evidence of excellent work in the diilerent 
departments embraced, while the general plan and purposes of the institution 
also entitle it to commendation. Besides the College proper, the institution 
embraces a well organi/A'd [u-eparatory st'hocd, in order that none nuiy have an 
excuse for ignorance of the ordinary English branches, jiroliciency in which 
should everywhere be considered a pre-re(piisite to admission to a commercial 

Attest : 
J. L. Cami'IUOLl, Sery. 

A. T. (iOSHOKN, Dim-tor Gaieral. 
J. R. II.VWLKY, IWsklcnt. 


The splendid success with which the young men who have received a course 
of training in this institution arc meeting, is due, in a great meastue, to the 
superiority of the course of study, wiiich has been revised, extended and im- 
proved, until it is tiioroiigli, eonijilete, and systeniatieal. The institution excels 


in the superiority of its actual business department. Realizing the benefits to 
be derived from "a system of exercises which would thoroughly and coinpletely 
illustrate real business, and give point and force to instruction in principles, 
Mr. Peirce and Rev. Mr. Thompson, the business manager of the College, have 
devoted unlimited time, untiring study, and great expense to perfecting such a 
system as would secure these advantages. They have introduced a unique plan, 
which has received the unqualified commendation of business men and com- 
mercial educators whose attention has been directed to it. It is easily compre- 
hended, simple, yet involving every variety of commercial transactions, greatly 
facilitating business in the various offices in the practical department, requiring 
the use of all kinds of negotiable paper, money, business documents, in short, 
constituting an exact imitation of real business. It is the intention of the Prin- 
cipal and Business Manager to retain this actual business system as a distin- 
guishing feature of the Union Business College. 

The branches taught in the College are Book-keeping, in all its departments, 
including banking, commission, forwarding, merchandising, &c. Commercial 
Law, which is limited to the law absolutely required by business men, and 
which is taught and illustrated in class recitations and lectures. Arithmetic, 
primary and practical, involving every kind of computations that can possibly 
arise in business. Penmanship, practical and ornamental, insuring the pupil 
an easy, graceful and rapid hand for business purposes, and, to those who de- 
sire the ornamental course, the highest skill in the use of the pen. Letter- 
writing and Business Customs and Forms are also a part of the course of 
study. A well-organized English department is provided for those who are 
not sufficiently advanced in their studies to commence the business course, in 
which, by individual instruction, any deficiencies in a necessary English edu- 
cation are supplied. Students are admitted at any time that the College is in 
session, and are charged only for tlie time they attend. The College is open 
during the whole year, except the month of August, Christmas week, and days 
called legal holidays, on which the banks are closed. The College year com- 
mences on the first Monday of September. Sessions are held every week-day, 
excepting Saturday, from 9 A. M. to 2 P. M., giving pupils who reside in the 
country, near rail road stations, ample facilities to reach their homes at conve- 
nient hours. 

A decided advantage possessed by the Union Business College, lies in the su- 
periority of its faculty. The Principal, Thomas May Peirce, A. M., as an in- 
structor and disciplinarian of youth, is without a peer in the city of Philadel- 
phia. He is a high-minded christian gentleman to whom parents may safely 
confide the education and training of their sons. The greater part of his life 
has been spent in educating the young, and his present position — the head of 
the most successful institution of the kind in the country — is richly deserved. 
He is endorsed and commended to the public as an educator by some of the 
most eminent men in Philadelphia — ;judges, educational leaders, and promi- 
nent ministers of the gospel. The Institution and the, efficiency of the course 
of training has the unqualified endorsement of the leading merchants, bankers, 
and rail road and insurance companies of Philadelphia and elsewhere. The 
Business Manager, Rev. .John Thompson, is a member of the Philadelphia _M. 
E. Conference, and is well known to the citizens of Philadelphia and vicinity. 
He is strongly commended to the public in his present position, by such men as 
Bishop Scott, Bishop Simpson, Rev. .John Inskip and Edgar M. Levy, D. D., 
pastor of the Berean Baptist Church, Philadelphia. Bishop Scott says: 
" Rev. John Thompson, the Business Manager of Peirce's Union Business 
College, Philadelphia, is an honored and excellent member of the Philadelphia 
Conference, and a faithful and efficient manager of any trust committed to his 
hands. For he will, in my judgment, accept no trust which he does not regard 
as in harmony with the character of a minister of Christ, and he will permit 
no trust which he does accept to suffer in his hands, if faithfulness and dili- 
gence can prevent it." Bishop Simpson says : " It gives me great pleasure to say 
that for several years I have been acquainted with the Rev. .John Thompson, 
who is Business Manager of Peirce's Union Business College. He is in every 


respect :i Cliristian gentleman of irreproacliable liabits, and is, 1 believe, ad- 
mirably adapted to watch over the morals of the young men committed to his 
care, as well as to manage with skill and fidelity the genei'al interests of the 
institution." Other prominent instnu'tors (jf the College, are Professor J. H. 
Warren, Professor of Penmanshii>; Professor Geo. E. Pool, Pidjlic Account- 
ant and Teacher of Theory of Book-keeping; Professor F. Ibach, B. S., is 
Teacher in the English Department. Prof. Ibach is a graduate in the scientific 
course of the Millersville State Normal School. It will be seen that each de- 
partment is jjrovided with a teacher who is peculiarly adapted to the duties in- 
volved. One professor is not required to teach half a-dozen branches, but is 
assigned that work which is most congenial to him, and hence that for which 
he is most perfectly fitted. 

The character which Philadelphia has established for being a city of homes, 
churches, schools and morality, added to the fact of its cleanliness and health- 
fulness, the intelligence and hospitality of its citizens, its beauty and charming 
surroundings, and its accessibility, render it one of the most suitable cities in 
America for the location of an institution of this kind. This alone has been a 
great advantage to the Union Business College, but its unique, original 
and common-sense system of instruction for the development of the 
business powers of young men, has given it a character among business men 
tliat no other college has ever secured, and has brought to its halls a class of 
young men who have alike honored the institution, and been honored and 
benefited by it. If a father wishes to give his son a legacy that will 
endure while life exists, let him send him to the Union Business Col- 
lege, where he can gain a practical business education, and he will have the 
satisfaction of knowing that he has given him what is better than houses, lots, 
farms, or even gold or silver ; these may take wings and suddenly fly away, 
but this knowledge will endure while life and reason exist. The circulars of 
the College give every necessary information, and can be secured by addressing 
either the Principal or Business Manager, at the address given above. 


The house of Claxton, Remsen & Haflelfinger, one of the largest book-pub- 
lishing establishments in this country, is an example of what Philadelphia 
enterprise has done in the building uj) of mammoth business institutions in a 
comjiaratively short jaeriod of time. The firm began business under the present 
name in the year 1868, on the expiration of the term of partnership with the 
firm of J. B. Lipi)incott & Co. The senior partner is Edmund Claxton, who 
began his business career with Stoddart & Atherton in the year 1830. This 
gentleman subsequently, in 1833, connected himself with the firm of Origg ct 
Elliot, and finally entered into partnership with Messrs. Ueorge Kemsen and 
Charles C. Hafielfinger, in the business which they at present manage. ]Mr. 
George Remsen began business with John (Jrigg in the year 1828. Messrs. 
Claxton and Remsen were lioth i)artners in the firm of Grigg, lOlliot t'V' Co. from 
18-1(! to ]8o(). In the latter year they united with J. B. Lippincott, Henry 
Grambo, and P>. B. Willis, in purchasing the interests of.Iohn (iriggand Hugh 
Elliot, and continued the business under the firm names of Lippincott, Grand>o 
& Co., and J. l\. Lipjiincott & Co., until the dissolution of co-i)artnership in 
the year 18()8. The remaining partner of the iiouse in (piestion, Mr. Charles 
C. Hafielfinger, commenced as a boy in the em])loy of Cirigg iS: Elliot in the 
year 1842. He continued in the business until the year 1858, when he became 
a member of the firm of J. B. Li])i)incott i\i; Co., where he remained until 18(18. 
The long and intimati' personal coiniectit)n of the members of the firm with the 
iiook ti'adi', emliracing a jjeriod of forty-five years, their ihorough l;uowK'dgeof 
the bot)k l)usiuess, and uniform courtesy in dealing with their jiatrons and 
others, has made the house one of the most po|)ular in the United States. They 
do an extraoi'dinary large ti'ade, and have business relations with every city in 
the Union. Their catalogue of jtublications embraces over eight hundred 
volumes, treating on neaily t'very subject in literature. The scientific and 




practical works of Trautwine, Roper, Riddle, and White, published by C'laxton, 
Renisen & Haffelfinser, have a large and steadily increasing sale, while Lab- 
berton's Chart and Historical Series, a recent publication, are claimed by the 
publishers to be the most reliable and complete treatise on tliat subject. In ad- 


dition to tlicir own publications, the firm have a general stock, comprising a 
full line of standard, law, medical, scientific, and school publications, making 
one of the largest and most complete in the trade. In connection witli tlieir 
book business, the firm have a full and complete stock of stajile and fancy sta- 
tionery, which promises to become a great feature in tiieir trade. At the present 
time they do a very extensive business in this line, but an is daily per- 
ceptible, and the day will yet come when their business, in this respect, will 
compare well with that of the largest stationers in tiie country. The firm, not 
long ago, built the large building at Nos. 624, 626, and 628 Market street, for 
their special use. It is one of the handsomest stores in the city, and is a favorite 
resort of the book buyers of the country. 


Among the most noted of Philadelphia's manufactories, are the Baldwin Lo- 
comotive Works. In point of size and capacity they have no rival on the con- 
tinent, or probably in the world. They are situated in the space comprised 
between Broad, Willow, Fifteenth and Spring Garden streets, and were founded 
in 1831. Mr. M. W. Baldwin, the founder of the establishment, was a native 
of New Jersey, came to Philadelphia in early life, and served an apprentice- 
ship as a maniifiicturing jeweller, but after becoming of age he prosecuted va- 
rious branches of manufacturing business until 1830, when he built the first 
locomotive for exhibition in Peale's Museum. In 1831 he received an order 
for a locomotive from the Philadelphia and Germanlown Rail Road, and the 
engine was placed on the road in January, 1833, being the first successful loco- 
motive built in America. He built five engines in 1834, fourteen in 1835, 
forty in 1836, and between forty-five and fifty in 1837. In 1860 the capacity of 
the works had increased to eight locomotives per month ; in 1866 to sixteen 
per month ; in 1868 to twenty-five per month. In 1854 Matthew Baird became 
a partner, contributing capital, skill, energy and })ractical knowledge of the 
business. In 1866 Mr. Baldwin died, and Mr. Baird purciiased the Baldwin 
interest, and associated with him as partners George P. Burnham and Charles 
T. Parry, under the firm name of M. Baird & Co. Subsequently Mr. Baird's 
interest'was purchased by tiie present firm, which includes Messrs. Burnham, 
Parry, Williams, Henszey, Longstreth and Converse. Tiie capacity of this es- 
tablishment has kept pace with the growth of the American railway system, and 
the firm has ventured boldly in all lines of enterprise. Tiie first narrow gauge 
locomotive engine built in America was made in these works for the Denver 
and Rio Grande Railway. The firm has filled large orders for locomotives for 
railways in Russia and Brazil. Mr. Baldwin was the inventor of many of the 
peculiar features of the American locomotive, and tiie practical engineering 
talent of his associates and successors has always been equal to tlie task of pro- 
ducing a locomotive of any required kind for any particular service. Hence tlie 
establishment has contributed in more ways than one to the success of the Amer- 
ican railway system. Our locomotives were not produced as mere imitations of 
foreign enginek Mr. Baldwin invented many of tlieir peculiarities, and was 
in fact one of tlie most distinguished inventors the Republic lias produced. Tiie 
machinery used in the establishment is something wonderful in its way, the 
ground fioor of the main building iiaving no less than sixty-five macliines in 
operation, including latiies, jjlaners, slotting and milling machines and l)()rers. 
Tiie first pbmer made in America is still to be seen at work in this shop. The 
second Hour of the same building lias eighty-seven tools and machines, and the 
third floor sixty-two macliines. The Willow-street shoiis have thirty-two ma- 
chines on the first floor, twenty-four machines on the second floor, and thirteen 
machines on the third floor. The building between liiittonwood and Spring 
Garden streets is devoted to putting together the separate parts of the locomo- 
tives. These works enq)loy some seventeen hundred men, who, with their fam- 
ilies, constitute a population of seven thousand persons dependent upon tiie es- 
tablishment for their support. The ability of the concern to eomi)ete with the 
lMiro|)cau works in the t'Xjxirt trade in locomotives h;is boen fuliv demonstra- 




Although the rise and progress of the seed ])nsiness in this coinitry is of di- 
minutive proportions as eonipared with some other departments of industry, it 
is nevertheless not without historical interest. The statvis of the trade in the 
Coliiniil (li\>- is not letoukd The prohability is there were not any grounds 

and tliere were but few dealers. Seeds 
were brought from England to supply the 
wants of the colonists, and they also saved 
those for the more common vegetables. At 
present in many cases it is really cheaper 
to supply a want by purchase than to ob- 
tain it "home-made," and in the cafie of 
garden seeds, much more certain and re- 
liable. One of the most extensive firms 
in the country engaged in the seed busi- 
ness, is that of David Landreth & Sons, 
Xos. 21 and 28 South Sixth street. Here 
tiiey have a large agricultural and horti- 
cultural warehouse filled with the choicest 
seeds. When David Landretli, the found- 
er of the business, located himself in this 
city the year following the conclusion of 
the Revolutionary War, there were no deal- 
ers in seed in rhiladelphia. Shortly there- 
after he started in business on a small scale, 
l)ut (piite commensurate with the demands 
of the conununity. The requirements of 
society increasing, at the close of the cen- 
tury his nurseries and .seed groimds had 
extended to thirteen acres, a magnitude 
which excited surprise and admiration. 
The tliirteen original acres have long since 
been covered with bricks and mortar, but 
from them have si)rung four seed farms of 
large dimensions in four diflerent States, 
selected Avith reference to soil and cli- 
mate for special crops — owned, occupied 
and operated by the Landreth's. Im- 
proved machines have been invented or in- 
troduced, and steam-power applied where- 
ever practical)le — five engines being thus 
employed, and seventy-six head of work- 
ing stock are in harness daily. To-day 
Landreth's Philadelphia seeds are known 
in India, South America, the West Indies, 
and all over the United States. The prin- 
cipal seed farm of the Messrs. Landreth 
is at Bioomsdale, on the Delaware, a few 
miles above Philadelphia. Although this, 
thehomestead, endiracestive hundred acres, 
it is really only one-third of the area under 
plow, owned and personally superintended 
bv the i)roprietors. Virginia, New Jersey, 
climates, soils and local advantages, have 
been made tributary. Plantations in each of the States named are under til- 
lage, and with Bioomsdale, form a combination calculated to insure abundant 
supplies of the best (juality of .seeds. Independentlv of the numerous work- 
men employed on the estate, there are three steam engines for threshing, win- 

Wisconsin, each presenting varied cli 

122 piiii>Ar)ELPiriA, avilminoton and Baltimore 

nowing and cleanint; seeds, grinding feed, manures, ete., a " caloric" for pnniji- 
ing and otlier purposes, and an admirably well-adjusted steaming aj)i)aratus for 
prejjaring food for the working stock. There are also weil-furnished wheel- 
wright and hlacksmith shoi)s in which the wagons, carts and implements and 
mechanical api)liances used on the estate are manufactured. At Jjloomsdale 
during tlie past three years, energetic and persistent efforts have l)een made 
toward steam plowing and tillage. .Uthongh these have not been successful by 
direct traction, experiments will be renewed at an early day with the roj^e sys- 
tem in use in England. An idea of the extent of the structures recpiired for 
the storage, drying and [ireservation of crops, and otherwise successful prose- 
cution of the peculiar business conducted at Kloomsdale, can hardly be given 
in print. It is, however, a credit to the proprietors, the successors of those 
who founded the business in 1784, and it may be cla.ssed as prominent among 
the many industrial euteri)rises of Pennsylvania. 


During the past Centennial year, many visitors to Philadelphia, in passing uj) 
and down Mai'ket street, were attracted by the handsome building occujiied liv 
the extensive dry goods firm of Messrs. Hood, PonbrightA: Co., No. Sll Market 
street. The structure is one of the finest on the street. It is five stories high, 
with a massive iron front. The width is 66 feet, and it extends back to Fill)ert 
street, a distance of 806 feet. Put one has no idea of the extensive structure 
until he enters it. On the first tlt)or are carefully arranged, from t lie front to 
the rear, the various articles sold by the firm. In front are selling and wait- 
ing-rooms for the ladies, and on the right, as you enter from Market street, in 
about the centre of the estal)lishment, are the various offices for the mend)ers of 
the firm, Ixiok-keepcrs, clerks, salesmen, A'c. Around the second floor an im- 
mense gallery extends, which is alstj lined with fabrics, foreign ami domestic. 
The same maybe said of the third and fourth floors. The fifth is u.sed for })ack- 
ing purposes, and is thoroughly liglited and ventilated. Here the work can l)e 
done expeditiously and well without hindrance. The basement covers the whole 
area of the store, together with tlu)se portions under the sidewalks of Market 
and Filbert streets. The entire structure is ventilated l)y a recently-invented 
process, and the building throughout is kept at a uniform heat, (treat attention 
is paid to cleanliness, and one i)erson is constantly employed to see that the es- 
tablishment, from the basement to the fifth story, is in perfect order. The build- 
ing, which was erected expressly for the great busi^ness which is now being con- 
ducted in it, was first occupied in 1.S72, and since that time the house has been 
making rai)id strides. The business was connnenced in 1S23, just o4 years ago, 
by Mr. Sanmel Hood, who is now living at the advance<l age of eighty-eight 
years. He long since retired from the firm, which has advanced steadily tlirough 
different changes until the Centennial year ; it now consists of Mr. Thomas U. 
Hood, son of the foundei', Mr. .James I)onl)rigiit, and a nmnber of junior mem- 
bers. The business is divided into separate departments, which ari' thus clas- 
sified: Print de|iartment, dress goods department, white goods and flannels, shawls 
and ladies' underwear dei)artnu'nt, cotton goods dei)artment, men's wear depart- 
ment, notions de})artment and carpet department. Each department has its 
separate head, .and there is no interference. In fact, those coiniected with one 
branch of the business have not the slightest idea of wliat is going on in another. 
Till! head of each re]iorts to the firm what is being done, and in this way all are 
graded. If it is fomid that a department is not ju-ofitable the matter is looked 
into at once, and tlu' I'ause examined. In this way everything in the large es- 
tablishment proceeds with l)Ut little trouble. In fact, this is the true method in 
which so many interests are comliiucd for the general good. In the various 
branches of the trade fully two huudi-i'd ])ersons are cm|iloyed. .\n examina- 
tion shows that the stock of goods is full in every department, and one would 
not think, after a hasty survey of the neatly arranged fabrics, that there had 
been a recent financial crisis. The business of the firm is immense, and can only 
he estimated by millions. While the trade has sufii'red somewhat bv a lu-avv 


decline in the jtrices, it does not seem to liave affected the bnsiness of Hood, 
Bonbriglit & Co. to any great extent. While their bnsiness last year was large, 
it is nnich larger this year, and gives every indication of still greater niagni- 
tnde in the fntnre. The tirni find, in common witli many other of our Phila- 
delphia bnsiness men, that the Exhibition lias helped them wonderfully. Many 
new customers from all parts of the country have been added to their list. These 
were attracted to the Exhibition, and wliile here were induced to purchase, and 
were surprised to find that their wants could be supplied aswell, if not better, in 
this city than in New York. Otliers again who visited the model establishment 
for the purpose of inspecting it, did not leave until they had given orders for 
goods, and in numerous instances they were large ones. The firm have recent- 
ly introduced their carpet department. In it are to be found the best carpets of 
home manufacture. Already a large trade in this branch has been secured, and 
it is steadily increasing in importance. A fair portion of the building is devo- 
ted to this business exclusively. Taken as a whole, the house of Messrs. Hood, 
Bonbright & Co. may be considered as one of the very finest in the country. 
There is every convenience fordoing business, and the gentlemen at the head <jf 
tlie firm are known as men perfecth' familiar with every branch of the trade. 
They are also known as among our best citizens, aiding in every good work. 

This staunch old corporation was established in 1825, and has been in suc- 
cessful operation for a period of over fifty years. Its business is confined to fire 
risks, but covers public and private l)uildings, furniture, stock of goods, and 
merchandise generally ; its jiolicies are eitlier limited or perpetual. Its assets, 
valued at over one and a-half million dollars ($1,655,717.20), are all invested 
with sound judgment, of which $491,707 is in first mortgages on improved real 
estate. Like other old and conservative Philadelphia companies, the Pennsyl- 
vania for a long time pursued a purely local business, until the conviction be- 
came general in business circles that the values of property in our great cities 
were entirely too vast to warrant the assumjition of insurance risks mainly by 
local underwriters, unsustained by the capital of other communities. This les- 
son was rendered painfully impressive by the insurance failures caused by con- 
flagrations in New York, Philadelphia, I^oston, Pittsburg and Chicago. Hence 
the old Pennsylvania Company, with its staunch resources and admirable corps 
of officers, launched out upon the broad sea of American insurance all over the 
north and west, and has now over six hundred agencies. These are centralized 
in populous cities, such as Boston, Chicago, New York, St. Louis and Cincin- 
nati. It has passed triumphantly through the ordeals of the terrible conflagra- 
tions in some of those cities, and has steadily augmented its assets. The busi- 
ness of the year 1875 covei-ed $598,555.21 receipts for net cash premiums ; 
$316,365.08 losses paid; $76,660.40 interest received on investments; $39,275 
dividends paid, and a sum about equal to the surplus of interest over dividends 
was added to the accumulated assets. Since the presidency of Mr. John Dev- 
ereux commenced the enterprise of the Company has largely increased, and the 
reputation of the institution has been made known to a nuich wider field of 
operations, the traditional conservatism of the management however being re- 
tained under the auspices of its able and experienced Secretary and Board of 
Directors. The history of the. Company has offered no record of misfortunes 
or calamities in its financial condition. It has been always safe and successful, 
because those entrusted with its management provided against all contingencies 
and took care to be always prepared for any emergency. Hence it is now aliie 
to cope witli the greater tasks of insurance presented by an age of immense 
progress, vastly enhanced values and risks, and demanding for their compre- 
hension minds of enlarged scope and extended familiarity with the new aspects 
of civilization and commerce. Mr. Devereux is one of the best representatives 
of such a class of business men. 


In 1848 Mr. Aaron B. Cooley, who had been engaged in the general com- 
mission business in New York and Philadelphia, turned his attention to dredg- 


in<< opfiutiiiiis. He eiiiploye<l one dredgei- running liy lioise-power, with a 
capacity for removing one imndred and iifty eul)ie yards of ordinary river 
deposit per working (lay. Four years later Captain John Soniers, an experi- 
onc^ed and successful seaman and navigator, was admitted to partnership under 
the firm name of C'ooley & Somers, wliicli continued more than five yeai-s, and 
found employment for but two dredging nrachiues of small capacity. In July, 
1857, Mr. Cooley repurchased Captain Somers' interest and carried on tlie busi- 
ness six years, adding one dredger. Then Mr. Franklin B. Colton,for ten years 
engaged with Mr. Cooley, became a jiartner, the firm name Ijeing A. B. Cooley 
& Co. Two years after Captain John Somers was readmitted to copartnership, 
accompanied by Captain William Somers, the firm name being unchanged. 
By special act of the Pennsylvania Legislature, approved April 9th, 1S67, a 
corporation was authorized, and in May organized under the name of the 
American Dredging Comjjany, with a })aid uj) capital of $200,000. Captain 
John Somers was elected first President. The new Com})any purchased the 
jjroperty and franchises of the Delaware and Schuylkill Dredging Company, 
increasing tiieir dretlgers to six, with three tug boats. The demands upon the 
facilities of the Company by the general government and by railroad, canal and 
municipal corporations and individuals, have been so pressing that increased 
capital stock has been authorized to the amount of one million dollars, of which 
one-half has been subscribed and i)aid in. The work has l)een carried on suc- 
cessfully in nearly all the seaboard States fi-om Maine to Texas, and even into 
South America. All the dredgers owned by the government have been con- 
structed l)y the Company. Among the oi>erations carried tluongh by this Com- 
pany are the following : The filling in and imjjrovement of Windmill Island ; 
the filling in and improvement of all the j)roperties (jf the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, between the old Navy-yard and League Island ; the construction of the 
canal connecting the Salem and Delaware rivers, and the, completion of the 
Dutch Gap Canal in the James river, Va. The wharfing, filling in, grading 
and other improvements at League Island have been executed by this Com- 
pany. Hundreds of minor operations have been conducted, giving employment 
to sixteen or seventeen machines and to over four hundred workmen. The re- 
sources of the Company are engaged many months in advance. Its ship-yard 
at Camden, New Jersey, where some thirty acres are eud)raced in its pro]>erty, 
gives employment to over one hundred operatives. The dredging machinery 
which removed the rocks blasted by (leneral Newton at Hell Uate, was built 
by the Company. One of the machines received the only award made at the 
Centennial Exhibition. At the request of the engineers from Russia, Austria, 
Belgium and France, the Company has sent its secretary to their capitals with 
a view of introducing American machinery into Europe. During the progress 
of the Exhil)ition the engineers from nearly all the countries of the world have 
examined the Company's works and machines, and pronounced them remark- 
able. The Centennial Commissioners from New South Wales and South Aus- 
tralia, Messrs. Augustus Morris and Sanuiel Davenport, are anxious to have 
them intr(jduced into their respective countries. At the earui'sl solicitation of 
the former aniodel of the machines will l)e sent to liie Intercolonial Exhibi- 
tion at Sydney. The machines, are mucli chea|n'r llian liioscmade in England, 
can do more work, and recpiire less force to run tluni. Tiie otiicers of the ( 'om- 
pany are as follows: Presidtint, F. B. Colton ;. Secretary and TreasuriT, l-'ioyd 
II. VVhite; Chief Engineer and Sup't, F. C. Bindie, ('. K. 


This old and deservedly popular house was established by the t\\vvv si'uior 
mend)ers of tln' present firm, viz: .John ( ). James, \Villiam ( '. I\ent and 
Charles Santee, in llie ye;ir IS-lO, in the iinmedi;ite locality now oecujiied by 
their conunodious warehouse, and since that time there h.i> bt'cu no eli;iuge in 
the firm name, except by :iddiug tlu' wonU " ;ind Cumpauy," in the ye:ir 1S.")2, 
when the jiuiior iiartuers wert' admitted. 

This house, iVoiii its sl;irl, li;is ;ilw;iys pursued a legiliMi:ite drv goods busi- 


ness, never indulging in tempting outside speculations that have so often crij)- 
pled or ruined many otherwise successful concerns, and thereby has been unaf- 
fected by the commercial storms that have swept so many away. ]>y its known 
conservative policy in extending its trade only as its capital accunudated, it in 
early years established a credit both at home and abroad that it has maintained 
throughout its long and successful career. 

It has for years been a matter of inquiry by the business comnuniity, why 
this firm, possessing every facility for doing a greatly enlarged business, should 
remain on Third street; but we presume it would l)e difficult without nuich ad- 
ditional expense to secure a building so replete with every convenience for the 
transaction of a large trade as the one they now occupy ; and, indeed, there is 
less in locality than is generally supposed ; for when a merchant comes a 
Inuidred or thousand miles to make his purchases, a few squares, more or less, 
will not prevent his seeking the place where the best bargains are to be had. 
In the instance of this house it seems to have been verified, for while within 
the past ten or twelve years most of the dry goods houses that have done 
business in north Third street, have sought other locations, Messrs. James, 
Kent, Santee & Co., still continue to drive not only a large and flourishing, 
but a leading business of the trade, and the adherence of many customers for 
a third of a century uninterruptedly, is a guarantee of iaithful and fair deal- 
ing. Their large building on Xortii Third street, occujiies Nos. 235, 237, 239 
and 241. 

In commenting upon this firm we cannot but admit that it is one of Phila- 
delphia's honored land-marks, and of most enviable reputation as a mercan- 
tile establishment. Its individual members are always to be found among the 
most forward of our public-spirited men in all worthy enterprises for the gen- 
eral good of the city. 


The wholesale cloth trade, which this house represents, necessarily engages a 
large share of mercantile attention and enterprise in a country where, as a rule, 
men dress better, on an average, than in Eurojje. Hence the wholesale cloth- 
ing business has risen to colossal })roportions, and the dealers wlio sell cloths, 
cassimeres, vestings and other stuffs for male attire rise in cities like Philadel- 
phia to a trade of millions. The firm of E. T. Steel & Co., southwest corner of 
Sixth and Market streets, has been in business, in this latter line, about twenty 
years. It is composed of E. T. Steel, Henry M. Steel, William (r. Steel, 
Joshua (t., James and Adolph Ganzel. For a long time the firm was 
located in Second street, above Market, where the foundations of a large, per- 
manent and flourishing trade were laid, and, in 1870, following the westward 
movement of business in this city, it removed to the large and capacious five- 
storied building where it is now established, and the whole of which is occu- 
pied by the various departments of the house. The building fills a lot forty 
feet front on Market street by one hundred feet on Sixth street, so that the 
light is excellent and the salesrooms airy and jjleasant and the facilities for 
the receipt and delivery of goods ample. The trade done by the firm extends 
through the middle and western States from the coast to the western border of 
Missouri and Iowa, and has been larger this year than at any f«jrmer period. 
A large proportion of this trade is done through the agency of connnercial 
travelers, and the experience of this house proves that Philadelpliia can com- 
pete successfully in the distriliuting traffic with all the enterjjrise of New 
York, Chicago and other commercial cities east and west. Technically, the 
term for the business of this firm, is "men's wear," but it embraces cloths gen- 
erally, whether worn by male or female, old or young. The domestic manu- 
factures in this trade have now got so much the command of the American 
market that the foreign imports have declined heavily, and, dealing directlv 
with the mills, this firm order their own styles of goods and have their own 
patterns and designs. Hence the Americaji articles sold by the firm are not 
mere imitations of foreign styles and patterns, ))ut have a merit of their own. 
Though prices are very much reduced the qualities of the goods are not cor- 


respoiidiiif^ly (lettriorated, so tliat while the goods are clieap they are siihstan- 
tial. Tliis firm contiimes to import many fbreisjii goods wiiicii remain in deman<l 
and are likely to do so because of some speeialty, as in cloths made of the line 
wool raised on the estates of Prince Esterhazy, and various lines of English, 
Dutch, French and (German goods. But the progress made in the trade by the 
American manufacturers has been so great that the business of the distributing 
houses has been materially changed, as we have shown above. It is an impor- 
tant fact that the domestic goods are cheaper than the foreign, and yet are excel- 
lent in .style and (juality. It is in this connection, between the mills and the 
wholesale houses, that the strength of the American production lies. E. T. 
Steel & Co. buy only for cash, therein lies much of their ability to sell superior 
goods at low prices, as they have no interest to pay on borrowed money. Tlieir 
sales are for easli and short time at short prohts, and thus the business of the is managed on conservative principles tinaucially, while marked by energy 
and incessant enterprise in Ijuying and selling ihegoods in which it deals. The 
rise of the firm has been rapid, but substantial, and its success has been achieved 
by contesting boldly all parts of the mercantile field available for the home 
trade. It has dealt promptly and in good faith with American manufacturers, 
and rendered essential service by sustaining the actual merit of their products. 
The business of the house this year is the largest it has ever done, notwith- 
standing tlie general depression in trade. It may be well to state here that the 
firm of E. T. Steel & Co. was largely interested in the success of the Centennial 
Pvxhibition. Mr. Edward T. Steel, a member of the Centennial Board of Fi- 
nance, was an ardent worker in the cause, giving almost his entire attention 
from the creation of the Board to the close of its labors, and the firm being 
among the first and largest subscril)ers to the fund. 


This institution transacted a general banking l)usiness, under articles of asso- 
ciation, for several years before becoming regularly inccn-porated. In the year 
1814 it obtained a charter for ten years from the State of Pennsylvania, with a 
capital of .?!, 000,000, under wiiich the l)ank was carried. The first President 
was Andrew Bayard, a distinguished Philadelphia financier, who was also the 
first President of tlie Philadelphia Saving Fund Society. He served from the 
beginning of the bank, on Fel)ruury 7, 1810, until .June 1, 18M2, when he died, 
and was succeeded by another eminent financier, James Dundas, who served 
imtil January 2, 1849, when he resigned, lender these two administrations. 
The Commercial Bank attained a large share of importance in the commercial 
and industrial business of Philadelphia. Its Directors have always been active, 
infiiiential and solid capitalists, manufacturers, bankers, merchants, and other 
business men. Jacob Thomas was President from January 2, 1849, to October 
(), 1853, when he died, and was succeeded by Mr. Wainwright, who resigned 
Octol)er IC), 1857. Joseph Jones, who succeeded Mr. Thomas, resigned March 
1, ]S(),S, since which date the Presidency has been ably filled by James L. 
Claghoru, President of the Academy of Fine Arts, and an active director in 
various public institutions. The office of Cashier was filled from 1810 till 1825 
by Josei)h Williams, then till 184.S by Benjamin P. Smith, then till 1855 l)y J. 
j". Cojjc, and finally, from 1855 till tiie present time, by Mr. S. C. Palmer, who 
still fills tile post with marked ability; he has been with the bank for forty 
years, having once been i)aying teller. The charter of the bank, as a State in- 
stitution, was renewed from time to time, until the national system was estab- 
lished, when, luuler the Act of Asseud)ly authorizing the banks of the Com- 
monwealth to orgMuize under the national laws, this institution organized in 
October, 18(;4, as The Comnu'rcial National Bank, witii a capital of .'?81(»,0(l(), 
at which amount it now remains. The contingent fund then was $220,737.10. 
In the following year, 18(i5, a defalcation of one of the bank tellers to the 
amount of several hundred thousand dollars, made inroads ujion the surplus 
and reduced the November dividend from the usual annual rate of ten per 
cent, to four per cent., since which time, to May 1, 1S77, it has been at the an- 
nual rate of loperct'ut. The bank, for many years, occui)ied a marble build- 


ing on Market street, north side, below Third, but the irresistil)le concentration 
of finance toward Third and Chestnut streets, induced the removal of the insti- 
tution to its present location, at the southeast corner of Chestnut and Hudson 
streets. The present Board of Directors embraces James L. Claghorn, P. Jenks 
Smith, William Weightman, Charles D. Reed, James S. Martin, George B. 
Newton, Daniel Haddock, Jr., Leon ]>erg, George L. Knowles, Alfred (r. 
Baker, Joshua Lippincott, N. A. Jennings and John Sellers, Jr. Tiiebank ])arti- 
cipated in the early loans to the national government in the war crisis of ISIil, 
and its managers cheerfully sustained the war finances, and the bank partici- 
I)ated in all the active business of that era. It sustained all trials of inllali(jn 
and contraction, panics and crashes, and has come down to us as strong and 
sound as ever, as full of life and business energy as when it was organized, and 
one of the live institutions of the city, to which the business men always look 
with confidence. 

CHINERY, &;c. 

It is a curious fact that no establishment in Philadeli)hia succeeded in c(m- 
structing a successful hotel elevator until the firm of Stokes & Parrish bc^^an 
the business. This house was estal)lislied in 1S70, under the present proprie- 
torship, wIkjsc works were located at Twenty-third and Wood streets. The firm 
afterwards removed the shojis to a more eligible situation, at the northwest 
corner of Thirtieth and Chestnut streets, where they still remain. They are 
manufacturers of elevator, (i)assenger and freight,) steam engines and boilers, 
and do a general machine trade. The firm make the building of hotel and 
warehouse elevators a specialty, and iiave reached a high degree of perfection 
in their manufacture. They have supplied nearly all the leading hotels of 
Pbiladeli)hia with this important machinery, so indisi)cnsable to every first- 
class hostelry. Among the [)rincipal jobs may be mentioned the elevators in 
the Continental Hotel, St. George's Hotel, Baptist Publication Society, and 
Young Mens' Christian Association Hall. They have also placed heavy freight 
elevators in the principal Inisiness houses of the city, and have j^ut in an im- 
mense elevator and liydraulic machinery in the new Kush Mansion Hotel. 
The firm consists of Samuel E. Stokes, Jr., and Alfred Parrish. Among the 
features of the Main Exposition Building, was the large elevator in the cen- 
tral tower, that carried visitors from the floor to the roof. This was the firm's 
exhibit, and it was awarded un(pialilie(l counuendation by every exj)ert who ex- 
amined it, and it is now running in the Permanent International Exhibition. 
Tlie house superintentled the supjily slioi)s at the Ex])ositi(jn for the exhibitors, 
under the authority of the United States Centennial Commission, and Jiad a 
branch machine shoji on tlie sjKjt to facilitate the operations. During the Cen- 
tennial season the firm did a largely increased business, and nearly five hun- 
dretl workmen were kept constantly emj>loyed. On an average, fifty hands are 
engaged in the establisliment, many of tliem being the most skilled machinists 
in the country. The shojjs are on an extensive scale, and are supplied with the 
best tools and most improved machinery now made in Philadelphia. The firm 
has no agencies, nor does it keep travelers in the field drunmiing u\> trade; 
they do their own selling, and each job is a good advertisement. 

Their operations are not confined to Philadelphia, but considerable work is 
done for New York, Baltimore, New .Jersey, and the south. The latter field is 
just looming up, and the house has recently placed one of its elevators in a new 
Galveston (Texas) hotel, which is said to be the finest hotel in the south. Al- 
though a comparatively young establishment, the firm of Stokes & Parrish has 
monopolized nearly the whole of the elevator business in their locality, and 
being now firmly established in pojjular favor, its future is bright and encour- 
aging. There were nevermore than two or three elevators constructed in Phil- 
adelphia before this house began the business, and it is a singular fact that every 
one i)roved a failure and had to be displaced. The house also engages in the 
manufacture of elevators for stores, factories, mines, sidewalks, iron foundries, 
docks, grain elevators, l)Otli portable and stationary. It also manufactures en- 


gincs for tlieiii, witli arrangements secured by many patents, whicli bring them 
up to a liigli state of perfection. Tlie vertical engine wliicli tlie (inn turns out 
has gainetl considerable re[iiUation in this locality, and is especially recom- 
mended to the trade. A specimen of the work the establishment turns out can 
be seen in the shipping and discharging machinery in use at the docks of both 
the American and Ked Star Steamslii]> ('(imiianies, south Delaware river front, 


This is the oldest corporation of the kind except one, in the State, and the 
excellence of its management is seen in the amount of its a.ssests, 82,285,1S2.48, 
belonging to the Company, independent of Trust FiukIs. It receives trusts of 
all kinds, whether as trustees, assignees, guardians, or as executors or adminis- 
trators, which business is in old and ex}ierienced hands. Deposits and trust 
funds are kejit entirely separate in the accounts and are not in any event liable 
for the debts or obligations of the Company. The Company receives money on 
de])osit and allows interest. Life insurance is done on the most reasonal)le 
terms, the premiums payable yearly, half-yearly, or quarterly, and the profits 
declared to the insured for the wlu/le of the life. The business of financial in- 
stitu'tions of this character has become very largely developed in America of 
late years, but the (iirard belongs to a conservative class managed on the tra- 
ditionary prudent principles of Philadeljihia fiscal institutions, which deem it 
a i)ublic duty to avoid all possible perils and maintain at all times an amjile 
surplus and cash reserve. The assets are all, therefore, invested in solid and 
substantial securities or mortgages, and can be readily realized on demand. 
Thomas Ridgway, President ; S. I. Comly, Vice-President ; W. H. Stoever, 
Treasurer; Charles O. Groom, Actuary ; and Caleb Clothier, .Secretary. The 
managers include some of our first capitalists, merchants and manufacturers. 
The ('(tmpany was for nuuiy years located in the first story of the marble build- 
ing cast of the Custom House, now occupied liy the Western Bank, and when 
the latter corjioration determined to occupy the whole building and reconstruct 
the interior, tlie Girard moved to its present admirable quarters, Nos. (iSo an<l 
635 Chestnut street. Th.e office was formerly occupied by the National Ex- 
change Bank, and is excellently adapted for financial business. 

The business of life instirance, to which this Comi)any has mainly devoted 
its capital and enterprise, was for a long time less understood and appreciated 
as a wise provision for the futtu-e in Philadelphia than in New York, I'oston 
and the north and east generally ; ])robablv for the same reason that lianking 
was less used in this city and State than in New York and New P^ngland. But 
a great change has occurred in this res})ect of late years, and life insin-ance 
companies are no longer looked upon as mere money-making concerns for the 
stockholders and managers, but as usefid organizations to encourage habits of 
ctonomy and prudence, and as fm-nishing the means of safe and })rofita))le in- 
vestment to thousands of persons who do not understand investments at all, and 
are always liable to be deceived by ])lausible undertakings and ])romiscs. The 
Girard has rendered large and important services in Philadel})hia and all its 
tributary rcgiim in overcoming these anti(piated pri'judiccs, and accustoming 
oui' j)eople to the use of such coi'jiorate enterprises as those of the to 
which it lielongs. For a time the insecurity of all kinds of insurance was a 
IKipular n()ti(jn, because of the number of swindling concerns that were wrecked 
or exjiosed. But substantial comj)ain'es, like the Girard, guided by capitalists, 
manufacturers and merchants of the highest class for wealth and integrity, have 
rescued the life insurance business from this reproach, and elevated it to a high 
jilace in public estimation. 


The founder of this estal)lishment, Thomas Clyde, still a living, active and 
enterjirising nu'rchant, began his now famous line of coa^stwise and West India 
steamers in the year ISlO, .-ibout tlie linii- when the screw |in)i)eller was first in- 
troduced for practical use in commercial shipping, which IVFr. Clyde was among 


the first to iidopt it, it hcing in the Ericsson line of canal steamers between 
Philadelphia and Baltimore. Tiie success which marked this change was fol- 
lowed lip in the general use of the propeller in the coasting service. In 1S50, 
Mr. ('lytic estaliiished a line of st'rew steamers between l*hihidel]ihia and New 
York, which lasted until iStil, during which period he also cslahlished lines of 
the same kind on the Delaware and Ciiesapcakc liavs, from Philadeli)iiia and 
Baltim()re to various southern jKirts ; and though iIk' war iuterfcicd willi these 
for a time, they are all now in successful operalitMi. The tirm of William P. 
Clyde iS: ( "o. is composcil of Thomas Clyde's sons. Its Inisiness now covers 
lines of steamers t'rom New York to Norfolk, Kichmond, Wilmington, N. C, 
C'hariestown, Savannah, Fernandina, Key \V\st, Havana, the ilayticn ])orts, 
San Domingo and Porto Kico; between Philadelphia and New York, Provi- 
dence, Boston and all the southern ])orts, between Baltimore and the southern 
ports, and between New Orleans and the West Indian jiorts. Wm. P. Clyde & 
Co. are also the agi'uls of the Panama Transit and Pacitit' Mail line steamers 
between New York, Central and South America, and ('alifornia and < )regon. 
They employ a ih'ct of over sixty American built steamers, a capital of many 
millions of dollars, and the annual Imsiness amounts to a great sum. The pa- 
rent house is in Pliiladel|)bia, at No. I'J South Delaware Avenue. But the 
hrm has branches in New Y'ork, Baltimore and other cities, and its oi)erations 
have become as vast and intricate as those of some of our great railway com- 
panies. It is a remarkable example of mercantile enterprise and success, 
through a jicriod so disastrous and destructive to the American commercial 
marine, and revives tiie age of Philadelphia shijiping greatness, in which Gi- 
raril and his compeers ihjurished. Its success may be said to have been caused 
by the i)romiit ailofUion of the screw propeller as the most eeononncal type of 
steamer, and the tirm adherence to it when New York merchants were devoted 
to the old side-wheel steamers, so wasteful of spjice and fuel. When iron 
steamers came into vogue after the war, Mr. Thomas Clyde was one of the 
earliest to ajjpreciate the advantages of iron over wood, and again promi>tly 
adopted the compound engines and also the i)lan of building vessels in com- 
partments. His vessels were always built with economy, though strong, sub- 
stantial and commodious. By always scrutinizing closely all the details of his 
business, keeping a strict watch (jver all contracts and expenses, and running at low 
rates, he has managed to render all his lines uniformly .successful. It seems to 
be a triumph of practical ability over all obstacles. The firm has a fleet of steam 
tow-buats and does a large business in Delaware river antl l)ay, and on the 
waters near Baltimore. The magnitude and success of the Clyde shipping 
lines and their business disjiel the idea so long prevalent that mercantile ven- 
tures of that scope and extent demand the capital of a great corporation, and 
show that here, as in England, they are entirely within the reach of individuals 
and lirms. The success of this Philadelphia concern has been achieved when the 
enterprise of New York seemed t(j absorl) and overwhelm all competition, and 
while the rail roads have been mure and more encntaching u}k>u the business 
of the navigation lines. No very large cajtital was invested to start with, and 
the main reliance of Mr. Clyde was iii)on his<nvn shrewd ju-actical kntjwledge of 
mercantile Inisiness, and his wonderful mastery of details. In the latter re- 
spect he resembles those great commanders who have become famous for mi- 
nute atteiiti(m to all under their control. Nothing ever escapes him. Ilis s(ms, 
traineil under his discipline, have carried out his principles and system with 
the same unfailing results. The bold venture of the firm into the Isthmian, 
South American, and Pacific trade is not beyond their sphere, and we are san- 
guine of their success. They are not speculators and stock gamblers, as so 
many have been who have had control of that business. They will have noth- 
ing to do with political or corruj)! schemes. Had the American ventures in 
the ocean transit between the United States and Europe been made as Mr. 
Clyde's were in the coastwise and West Indian lines, they would have been as 
successful, long ago, as our own recent venture in that direction is jiroving to 
be. They needed economy, close management, a practical knowledge of slajj- 
ping construction and details of working, and a prompt adojition of the screw 


projR'ller; and in all these they weri' doficiont. How nnu-li the conmierce of 
the Re|)nhlic needs more such men as Thomas Clyde, we need not say. He and 
his sons have done wonders for the eoastinj^ trade of l'hiladelj)hia, and deserve 
honor and fame for their achievements. 

We have given, ahove, its brief a condensation as possible of the details and 
liistory of a hnsiness snfticient, if elaborated fully and j)ro]>erly, to occupy a 
large volume. But it would be doing injustice to this great house, to allow the 
occasion to pass without sj)eaking in broader terms of the magnitude of its busi- 
ness, the high mercantile ability dis]dayed in its accunndation and manage- 
ment, the national re])utation won by the firm, and the foundation it has laid 
for still greater acliievements. The first marked feature is tliat this great suc- 
cess lias been wholly confined to the use of steam vessels. The firm has not 
had any interest whatever in sailing vessels'. It is, therefore, purely a triumph 
of steam and of the propeller class of steam vessels. The second jyoint is, that 
the basis of the success was found in the coasting trade, which was always un- 
derrated as a maritime business, though Clyde has demonstrated what can be 
done with it. The tliird point is, that although shipping firms in New York 
have, in former years, risen to great wealth and busin<'ss, they always reniniucd 
devoted to New York alone, while Clyde, without neglecting Philadeliihia, has 
made his house national. The success of the great Liverpool shipping lirms 
seems to depend on the possession of large fleets of vessels always in want ol' 
employment, and open to any engagement that otters. Clyde's later successes 
are somewhat similar. For his great fleet enables him to answer any call thai 
may be made upon him, and to maintain a regular line where other and smaller 
concerns are unable to do so. A large amount of work has been given iiy Mr. 
Clyde to the shipbuilders on the Dehiware, and something of that kind is al- 
ways on hand at sonie of our yards. This truly great house has provin its 
ability to make the coasting trade pay at all the southern ports, and this it has 
done eflectually. What energy, skill, economy, management and knowledge of 
commerce it has recpiired to do this, in the face of the extraordinary rail road 
competiti(m that has crushed so many other maritime undertakings, we nee<l 
not say. Clyde's fleet is always increa.sing in tonnage, and the numlier ol' bis 
lines grows in the same proportion. 


The elegant blank book and stationery mart of W. F. Muri)liy's Sons, No. 
-509 Chestnut street, is Justly entitled to raid< among the first houses of this line 
of business in the country. Nothing in tlu' line of stationery, foreign or do- 
mestic, plain or fancy, is manufactured that cannot be obtained there, and that, 
too, at the most reasonable prices. As to their own make of lilank books, they 
are unexcelled in the world. This is one of the oldest and best known estab- 
lishments of its kind in the United States, having been organized by the late 
William F. Murphy (the father of the i)resent proprietors) in the year IS'iO. 
This gentleman was a practical bookbinder, and besides being a snjierior work- 
man, was a. man of great energy of character and line business abilities, lie 
was the first in Ibis country who rided jiaper by machinery. Previous to his 
time this was done by hand, and the |irocess conse(|Ucnlly was slow, imperfect, 
and much more costly than the |>resenl mode. Messrs. 11. F. and l'\ W. Mur- 
phy, the memluM-s of the present firm, were brought wy to tlu' business under 
the i>ractical care of their father, and having devoted nearly their wiiole lives 
to tlu' business, they are thoroughly familiar with the detailsof its every branch. 
With the tact of shrewd busiiu-ss men, they have availed ihemselves of every 

useful improvement in the manid'acture of blank 1 ks, and lhi>ir bindery is 

now one of the most complete and [U'rfect in the world. Their ndiug ma- 
chinery comprises some of (he finest models of the inventor's genius, and their 
mannfartures show to what perfection the ingenuity of man can arrive. They 
produce somi' of the most curious and intricate varieties of paper ruling with 
mathematical precision. To turn out the work they do, ri>i|inrcs del'l li.inds as 
well as improved ni;icliinery, controlled by ex|uMienced workmen. And not 

UAIT, noAl) (il'lDE HOOK. 


only in lliis l)r;iiuli ol' tlu'ir business, Imt in evuiv (lt|i;irtnu'nl of tiirir exU'n- 
sive manuractorv, llic ISh'ssrs. MMr}iliy employ none Imt tlie most experienced 
ol' skilled workmen ; of these they now liave ahoiit one hnndred and lif'ty. Be- 
sides doini^' an extensive business with the wholesale and johhint,' trade througli- 
oiit the countrv, they have a very lieavy special eiistom business with many of 
the prominent banks, insurance and rail road companies, manufacturers, shij)- 
ping, commission, and other merclumts, and, in fact, with all who re(piire first- 
class account books, stationery, etc. At the ( 'euteuuial i'Lxhiiiition, the splendid 
display of fine blank bnoks by the Messrs. Murphy attracted the s|iecial atten- 
tion of a large ninnber of visitors. In this display there were no less than two 
hundred ledgers, all made to order of tlie best material and most elaborate 
workmanship, and it was beyond doubt the largest and mcjst varie<l assortment 
of this kind ev<'r got together by any house in tlie world. To make this tlie 
ne plus idtra oi" blaid< book disjilays, two years were occupied in it,s preparii- 
tioUjthe workmen, with just pride, seconding their emjiloyers in tlieir endeavors 
to make it as near perfection as possible. As an evidence of their success, the 
following award was made by the ('entennial Commission : " It is evident that 
the most careful attention is paid to the minutest-detail in the work sbown in 
this exhibit, resulting in the highest degree of excellence, while the ])rices are 
moderate, theicby api)reciating and meeting tlie demands of the public." Lit- 
tle more need be a<lded. l<^rom the small beginning of Mr. W. V. Murphy, in 
1.S20, his sons, by close attention to their trade and correct dealing with their 
customers, are now doing a business of half a-million dollars a year. 


Sixteen years ago last April, was inaugurated, in a modest way, a l)usiness 
house which has since made continuous and gigantic strides, and to-day, in its 
line, stands in magnitude at the very toji — an instance of ]>rogressiveness and 
ju'osjierity unex.iiiipled in the history of Philadelphia. It is not a confusing 

stretch of memory for the jiresent 
generation to recall the sign of 
" Wanamaker ik l>rown," which 
was placed upon the somewhat un- 
inviting pix'uiises at the southeast 
corner of Sixth and Market streets, 
where the announcement was made 
that the firm was prei)are(l to fur- 
nish the male sex with ready-made 
wearing apparel. The venture 
was a risk, both as n-gards the time 
of staitinglhe undertaking and the 
particular lii-ld they had selected, 
for tln' same kin<l of business at 
that time was being pushed with 
vigor by several large houses in 
this city. An ambition to succeed, 
however, added to a rare tact and 
natural administrative ability, liore 
its proper fruit, and llu' enterprise, 
which was but the acoi'n in its in- 
ception, now shows its |»ro])er 
growth in the majestic pro|iiu'tions 
of "Oak Hall." 'This line build- 
ing, with its attractive iron front, 
has been widened to (W) feet on 
Market street, and extends in depth 
to Minor street, a distance of ISO 
MASONIC TKM i'l-K. feet. Thecuiployes of " Oak Hall " 

are numbered by thousands, and its many floors occupy an area of about three 


acres, iill utilized in nirrviny <»ii llie various liepartiiients of tins j^rt'at husiiiess. 
I^Ir. Browu died iu IS(')S, aud Mr. \Vauauiai<er purcliased iiis iuterest, Ix-coiiunu 
the sole owuer of < )ai< Hail. Tlie old liriii-uauie has always heeu kept uj) 
(thouf^h witliout any interest other than that of Mr. Wanauiaker and Mr. John 
F. Ililluian, achuitted in 1871). One would sni>[iose that a business of tliis 
magnitude would satisfy most persons, but there were other fields to ('(^Kpier, 
and the man wa.s at hand in the person of Jolni Wanamaker. His rapidly in- 
creasing trade induce<l him to ])ur<base the old freight (U-j>ot of the Pennsyl- 
vania Rail Road Company, at Thirteenth and Market streets, which, with char- 
acteristic energy, he has converted into a mammoth dry goods emi)oriuhi. The 
clothing business being well established, he turned his attention to a kindred 
branch, and lias supplied himself in every department with an attractive line 
of dry goods. An outlet on Chestnut street was deemed desirable, and the 
store, No. 1313 Chestnut, was secured and arranged as an ornamental arcade 
leading into the " Grand Depot." To give the size of this establishment re- 
quires "big" ligures. It is 250 feet by 373 feet on Thirteenth street, and the 
run through from Market to Chestnut streets is 488 feet. Other interesting data 
are as follows: Length of main isles, UHi feet; aggregate length of isles, one 
and a-half miles; area of tioor, over '.)0,0()0 s(iuare feet. There are 33 idocks 
of counters, numl)ering in all, 129, and, for the convenience of shopjjcrs, 1400 
stools. A novel feature of the estaldishment is a room handsomely furnished, 
lighted only by gas, wliich is set apart for the display of silk dress goods as 
they appear by gaslight. Besides this there are parlors, retiring njoms, &c., for 
the comfort of customers. It seems to us that forethouglit could go no further 
when we found suitable waiting-rooms for the convenience of ladies and\gentle- 
men who accompany persons making Here we find on the reading 
tables the newspapers and magazines of the day, provided for the free use of 
those who may be waiting for their friends. Of the employes the strictest po- 
liteness to every one is exacted by the firm, and customers can examine goods, 
or have them exchanged, without fear of iieing overwhelmed with an air of 
doing one a tavor, as is the practice in many stores. vVs a part of his business, 
Mr. Wanamaker is proprietor of the elegant Tailoring House on Chestnut 
street, adjoining the Continental Hotel. The merchant tailoring de])artment, 
for making goods to order, has no superior in Paris, London, or America. 


The general office of tliis corporation is at 125 South Fourtli street, Pliila- 
delphia, and the branch offices are at Trinity Building, New York city, and at 
No. 17 Post oflice avenue, Baltimore. H. H. Shillingford is President, H. T. 
Shillingford, Secretary and Treasurer, and the Com|iany mines and shii)s bitu- 
minous coal, its shipjiing jiiers for the export trade being at (ireenwich I'oint, 
Philadelphia; South Amboy (N<'W Jersey), aud Canton ( P>altimore). The 
Coinpanv owns about eight thousan<l acres, and controls by lease about one 
thousand more acres of bituminous coal territory in the Moshannou coal basin 
in Clearfield and Centre counties. Pa., designated in the Stale (ieological Sur- 
vey as the (Mearfield Steam Coal Rasin. The Company also has coal rights in 
Blair and Cambria counties, embracing about one thousand acres of land on the 
line of the Pennsylvania Railroad, upon which is developed and worked the 
celebrated Lemon vein of coal so famous for burning brick, possessing (|ualities 
not known at present to exist in oilier coals, of producing the rich, full and 
brilliant red color for which Pbiladelphia pressi'd brick are so justly distin- 
guished, it is also adapted for biacksmilhing and lime burning. The Clear- 
field steam coal incluths live e\|)lored beds, and the only one as yet developed 
and worked by the Com]iany, is about live feel and a-half in thickness, of jiure 
and clean coaL Tiiis coal has 74.284 per cent, of fixed carbon, cokes 77.!»7 per 
cent., according to the analysis of the Slate Surveyor, anil according to another 
analysis, has 711. 3!) per ceiu. of lixed carbon, and cokes 7!*. 01). 

The small peri'cnlage of sulphur aud ash, as well as practical tests of ihe 
coal by coking and burning in various ways, indicate that, for metallurgical 
purposes, and for raising steam, it is of the first (piality. The reports of the 



oonsuinor.s (iftliis coal, of its prarlic'al workiiin rt'siilts, sliow more f'avoi-alilv its 
superiority tliaii even tlie analysis indicate. Cerliticalcs to this eIR'ct on (lie in 
tile Company's otlice, are i'rom p;irties of tlie liigliest ri'S|)eclal)ility, wlio have 
used tliis ciial for yeais for genera tint;- steam for marine and slationcrv cni;ines, 
metallurgical jinrjioses, lilacksmithinj;- and i;lass nianufai'ture. 'i^he Company 
has a capital stock of live hundred thousand dollars, hesides an ain|)le surplus 
as working capital ; has great facilities for mining and shipj)ing coal, and can 
easily double its i)roduction in a short space of time by a small outlay for ad- 
ditional improvements. The mines in tilt' Clearlield region are ri'aclu'd, and 
the coal transj)orted over the Beaver branch of the 'i'yrone and ('learfudd Hail 
Road, forming a junt'tion with the Pennsylvania Hail Road at Tyront', reaching 
tidewater at .South And>oy, I'hiladelphia, and lialtimort-. Ilesidcs llnding ex- 
tensive markets in New JMigland, the Middle and Southern Stales, the ctjal is 
shipi>ed in largi' ijuantities to the W('st Indies, Mexico, and (Jenlral America. 
The lands in Jilair and ('andiria counties are at an<I near ( iallit/in and tlie 
Sumnut tuiniel. The Blair county nnnes were the Hist mines owned and 
worked by the Company, the otlurs being acijuired and worked al'terwards. 
The develoiiments were commenced in the Clearlield region in l.Sd.S on leased 
lands, and afterwards continued on the ('onipany's own lauds in 1S71. Mr. 
Shillingford, the Pi'esident of this ( 'om])any, is a business man of long expe- 
rience in extensive mercantile pursuits, :uid has displayed marked skill and 
ability in the management of this gi-eat enter])rise, the oi)erations of which are 
constantly increasing in magnitude and scope, and are already anK)ng the most 
important coal interests in IVuusylvania. The [liers of the Comj)any are now 
furnished with extensive facilities for delivering coal on shipboard from the 
cars, and do a very large business. Coal can be sent direct by car i.oad.s to 
all accessible points. 

INDKI'ENDKNlE HAl.L — N' -I; i H SlUli. 


In the year IStiO this linn succeeded Morris A' .Jones A: Co., who had been in 
the iron trade since 18".i9, and the business steadily increased year by year, un- 
til to-day they are known as our leading bouse in this line. Tiieir business 
connections extend throughout the T'nited States, besides which they have a 
large export trade, in ISOo tliese gentlemen organized the I'ottstowu Iron 
Company. The present officers are Theodore H. Morris, President; Andrew 

ir54 IMIILADKI.lMliA, \V 1 1,M INfiTON AND H A I.Tl M( )K K 

Wlu't'lc'i', Vici' I'rt'sidciit, and W. 11. Morris as 'I'rcasmcr aiitl rcsidt'iit (k'lural 
Maiiat;('r. Tlu'si' cxU'iisive works aiv localcil al I'otlslowii, MoiilnoiiuTy comity, 
IV'nnsylvaiua, and comprise a larfj;c lilast t'lirnaco, plate mill i)roduciny liOOtJ 
tons plate iron aimnally, nail factory, with yearly product ol' 12(l,()()() kej;s of 
nails, wliieli, witii other descriptions of iron, makes the total annual capacity 
about Id, (1110 tons. They make all the grades of lioiler plate, including the 
highest (piality of solid Fire Ijox Iron, and since the heginning of the era of 
Iron Ship-hinlding in this conntry, they have made a specialty of ship and holt 
plates, and have furnished a large pidportion of plates for all the sea-going 
steamers Imilt on the I)ehiware foi' the past five years, including the foni' steam- 
ers of the American Sleamshij) Company. American [dates have long lu'cn 
known to have greater strength than the iMiglish aitieie used lor similar ])ur- 
poses. In order to prove this more thoroughly and ai'ciirately, the I'ottstown 
Iron ( 'onipany, and others, were induced recently to send samples to IJrussels, 
to be tested by the Bureau Vcritot^, the results of which tests were largely in fa- 
vor of American iron. Messrs. Morris, Wheeler <k Co. have lately introduced 
a novelty in cut nails which has excited interest in the hardware trade, and has 
been noticed in a favorable manner in a recent number of the Jnni Jr/c The 
new invention consists in giving the nail a chisel point, which enabh-s it to i)en- 
etrate tlu' woo<l without breaking the libix's. If tlu' ail vantages claimed for this 
nail shall be established l>y practical usi-, it is fair to presume it will create a 
revolution in the nail trade, just as the blunt screw was superseded by the gim- 
let pointed screw. The common cut nail, when driven at right angles to the 
grain of the woo<l, is siu'ronnded by broken libri-s, hence, water penetrates and 
rots the wood. Tlie chisel-pointed nail cuts the grain of the wood instead of 
nnitilating it, and beds itself firiidy in the soliil wood. The manufacturers 
state that this nail is doiddy economical, in that there are a greater niunber of 
them to the poiuid, and fewer an' rt'ipiircd to accomjilish a given amoimt of 
work. The su)Pei'iority of tin' chisel-pointed nail is manifest, and will doubtless 
crowd the conunon article to the wall. Mi'ssi's. Morris, Wheeler A: Co., are 
earnest advocates of the advaiu'cment of American interests, and are among our 
most jiublic spirited and liberal nnnded citi/.ens. Their {daces of business are 
in I*hiladeli)hia, at Sixteenth and Market streets, and in New York, at No. 14 
CI id' street. 


This house, so long and favoraldy known to the shopping conunuuity of 
I'hiladelpiua, was founded in the year ISl 4 by Townscnd Sharpless. lie 
started in a modest way on Second street, above ('hcslnut, with a capital of but 
if^lOdO. Here was laid the foundation, by business tact and management, of 
that enduring prosperity which has its cidminatiou in (hcii- s[dendiil establish- 
nu'iit of to-day. In \X',>7 Mr. Sharpless associated with himself as partnci', his 
sou Samuid .1., and live years latt'r, in ISl'J, his son ('harles L., and in Islo his 
son I Icury ( i., and the style of the firm then became T. Sharpless A' Sous. 
After the withdrawal of Townscnd Shai'pless in ISIS, the business was con- 
tinued by the sons, under thc' name of Sharpless liros. The trade steadily 
incr«'ased until it became evident that more commodious ipiarters must l)e 
found to meet its rctpiiremcnts. In ISAT thi' sales amounte<l lo a half million 
dollars per auinnu, and the new site at tlu' north-west corner of iMghtb and 
< Jhcslnut streets having been sidecled, they moved into it. Ileri' the fii'iii con- 
tinued without change until the year 1S(J;!, (he sales in Ihi' meanwhile having 
increased to a nnllion and a-(piarler pel' aninuu, when Sanuicl .1. and Henry 
(J. I'ctii'cd, :ind the business was conducted by ('harh'sL. alone. 'I'o perpetuate 
the old firm in the new gi'nei'alion, ('harles L. in ISTll look into partnership 
bis son Henry \V., and iu ISTl! his son ('harles \\'.; thus, after many years, re- 
sfoi'ing the old title of Sharpless iV Sons. Notwithstanding the very exten- 
sive store they were occupying, enlarged business demanded additional room, 
and in IS?.'!, they bought and added to the original building the adjoining 
l>ropcrly of John St<ine, '2') feet front, and in 1S77 the Haines properly, an ad- 
ditional 25 feel, thus making in all a front on Chcstuut street of 1(»0 fei't, by 
1(55 feel deep on lOighth street. .V notable fc.ilurc of this house is the combin- 

KAii, K(iAi) (;rii)K liooK. 13;i 

ing of a wlinlesalo and retail trade, their hiisincss in ISTC) anionnting to nearly 
$4,0()0,()(H), )}i'2,0( 10,000 being wholesale, and the remainder retail. Standing 
to-day, as it does, in the front rank of houses in its line, it is interesting to re- 
view a career which from meagre hegiiniing, has matured to such strong and 
healthy growth. 

Messrs. Shari>less it Sons display on their shelves everything compi'ised under 
tlie general head of I)ry<ioods in great varii'ty and style. Silk, Woi den and 
Cotton fabrics in their almost endU-ss adaptations ari' furnisiicd at prices which 
only a very large capital can command. Shawls may be found to suit the tastes 
of all classes, as well as tiieir pockets, from the inexiieiisivt' woolen shawl to 
that si)lcndid product of India, the camel's hair, which in its very name sug- 
gests the plethoric purse. This firm has its seasonable openings for the display 
of fashionable dresses and suits, their own importation from the most celebrated 
Parisian vKxIixfrs, such as Worth and others of note whose names are not so fa- 
miliar outside of France. At a recent exhibition the display was unusually 
tine, and was the theme of admiration among the crowd of ladies wiio paid the 
establishment a visit ui>on the occasion. All tastes could l)e gratified, as the 
importation included costumes of all kinds, from the modest walking suit to 
the elegant evening toilette, and in the latest and most fashionable shades of 
color. The Wholesale I)e])artmcnt of this house is supplied with a large 
stock of well-assorted goods, and oflers extraordinary inducements to the 
country buyer. Messrs. Sharjiless & Sons are i)repared for whatever demand 
capital and foresight can command, and the customer can have his wants sup- 
jdied, and at the same time be assuivd of fair dealing. 


Messrs. Felton, Rau A Sibley, manufactui^ers, importers and dealers in var- 
nishes, paints, ghiss, etc., have been located at Nos. LSG, 13S, and 140 north 
F(jurth street since 1<S63. In that year the was established i)y Samuel K. 
Felton, (Vjnard F. Rau, and Fdward .\. Sibley, which same gentlemen to-day 
comprise the firm. The building occupied l)y ihcm stands on the northwest 
corner of ]<^(urth and Cherry streets, and is four stories high. The first floor is 
devoted to the sales department and offices; tlie second and third fioors are used 
for the storage of varnishes, and the balance for the storage of paints. The 
house has an extensive mantd'acturing liusiness in varnishes, for which 
they run two factories — one at Ilestonville, in the Twenty-fourth Vvard, and the 
other on Hart lane, near l^^rankford road, in llie Twenty-fiflh ward. The former 
is devoted to tlie manufacture of cabinet and lloor oil-cloth varnish, and the lat- 
ter princijially to the manufacture ol' line coach varnisii ;ind .Ia[ian. Mr. Ran, 
one of the mend)ers of the firm, is favored with an experience of at least thirty 
years in the manufacture' of varnishes, and conseiiuently is entrusted with the 
management of the factories named. The firm have facilities for turning out 
large <piantities of varnish, and as this is a peculiar class of goods which im- 
proves with age, they constantly have a large supi)ly on hand. In the manu- 
facture of their varnish, they use the Zanzibar gums from Africa, the New 
Zealand gums from New Zealand, Balavia gums from Ratavia, and ginn shellac 
from Calcutta. The lirTu make , a specialty of paints in their preparation for work, and more especially for use upon railway coaches. For the 
supply of this branch of their trade they operate a factory in the rear of 
Cherry street, between Fourth and Fifth. Messrs. Felton, -Rau iS: Sibley are 
also the sole manufacturers of John W. Tully's patent paint filling for iron and 
wood, an article for filling the grains of wood and iron in order to {)roduce a 
perfectly smooth surface. The firm projiose to deal in everything that a house, 
coach or sign painter recpiires in his business, -and const'(|uently they do rather 
an extensive glass trade. For an exiiibition of varnishes at the Centennial 
Exhibition, they received a medal at the recommendation of the group of judges 
under whose inspection their exhibit came. The house of Felton, llau »S: 
Sibley, although not as old, perha]is, as some other houses in that line of busi- 
ness, has become a landmark in the]irogress of Philad(d]iliia enterprise, and is 
widely known throughout the I'ountrv as producing tlic finest (juality of var- 


nislic's Mild iiitiiits sold in tlie tnido. Tlio firm do Imsiiu'ss witli retail houses 
in all tlic jdiiiciiiiil citifs, and deal very largely with I'lii!adeli)hians, competing 
sneeessriilly willi other hiisiness iiistiliitioiis of their kind in an etiurt to secure 
home trade'. 'I'lu'lr course in husiness, hesides this, has i)een eiiaraeterized by 
a ket'ii iKice|ilion of the wants of the [mhlie, and possessing; the advantajj;e of an 
experieiici' extending hack so many years, they are enaliled to furnish the very 
goods needed. l>y a watchful care of their inteiists and fair dealings with 
their huyers, the lirni to-day, in point of stal)ility, com|iares favorably with the 
best houses in any line of business. 


I'liiladilpliia is the ceiilre of a vast iron industiy, and here are annually pio- 
duced millions of dollars' worth of m;iehiiieiy, castings, tools, boilers, and other 
mechanical .iiiidiauces made from the gri'at staples. Among the establishments 
engaged in this impoitant trade, stand the JJusli Hill Iron Works, which were 
founded away back at the Iteginning of the present century, liy Oliver Evans, a 
well-known nu'cbanic, who gave them a reputation from the start. .Vfter his 
death the establisliment wa.s carried on by his sons-in-law, ^[essi-s. Rush & 
Muhlenburg, to the year 1S4(), at whicii time tiie esta1)lishment was reopened 
by Neal, Matliiews i^- Moore, of whicli firm the [)rcsenl proprietor was a mem- 
ber. Mr. .James Moore is a jiractical me<'liaiiic, and learned the trade with 
Messrs. Coleman, Sellers & Sons, whose eslablishment was in Delaware county, 
in this State. The present works now cover nearly two sipiares of ground, and 
the departments are iron foundry, machine, pattern, boiler, and smith shops. 
The line of manufacture is varied, and they are prei)ared to execute orders for 
castings of every description. Kolling-mill and furnace etpiipinents comi)lete ; 
rolling-mills for rolling rails, beams, angle, and all shapes for iron, steel, and 
comj)osition metals; sugar mill, sago mill, and grist mill machinery, and mill- 
wrigliting in general ; boilers, tine, tubular and cylinder, and all kinds of tank 
and plate-iron work. The priiuii)al business is building rolling-mills for iron 
and steel, among which they can refer to the following: Kail Mills, Pennsyl- 
vania vSteel-works, Ilarrisburg, Pa; Abbott Iron Coinjiany, Baltimore, Md. ; 
Joliet Jnm and SteelComjiany, Joliet, 111.; Pliiladel})liia i'^ Reading Kail Road 
Company's Mills, at Reading, Pa., and others; Rlooming Mills, Pennsylvania 
Steel Works, Ilarrisburg, Pa"; Edgar Thomson's Steel Works, Pittsburg, Pa.; 
North Chicago Rolling Mill Company, Ciiicago, 111.; Lackawanna Iron and 
Coal Company, Scranton, Pa. ; Albany and Keiissellaer Iron and Steel Com- 
pany, Troy, N. v.; P>eam and Par Alills, A. iS; P. Roberts & Co.; Pencoyd 
Iron Works, Philadelphia; Plneiiix Iron Company, Pliceiiixviile, Pa. ; lialti- 
moreiStOhio K:;il Road ('ompanv's Mills, ( 'iimberlanil, Md. ; W. A' II. Kow- 
land, Erankfoni, Philadelphia; E. c^ (i. Hrooke, P.irdsboro', Pa. ; Pottstown 
Iron Company, Pottstown, Pa. ; Plate Mills, Otis Iron and Steel C'onipany, 
Cleveland, Ohio; Nashua Iron and Steel Com])any, Nashua, N. IE; Lehigh 
Zinc Works, liethlehem, l*a., and others. This establishment has a wide repu- 
tation foi' making steam boilers. 


The |irovisioii house of Washington Itulcher's Sons was I'slablished in the 
year 17(10, sixtei'U years bi'lbre the .\mcricaii colonies became the ihcatri' of the 
memorable struggle for lilicrty against Itritish o|iiiression. It was founded l)y 
.John l>utcher, gi'i'at great gr;iiidfalher of the present meml)ers, and during the 
long interval of years which it has sue<'essfnlly survived, the ownership ha.s 
never deparle<l from tiie I'.iitchcr' family. Dining its long career there have 
been many lirms whose signs dc<'(iiMled the t'stablishment, and each one that 
came iiiliiscd iVc^h and vigorous blood into the couci-rn, oitening up new ave- 
nues of trade and e.\leu<ling the character and credit of the house. 

The American government during the period of the Ki'volution was a liberal 
customer of the house and its goods were distiibiilid over t he lU'ighboring colo- 
nies. The ediieeni started on Water street, liui aboui tweiit v-seven voars ago, 


it was nu)ved to 146 and 148 North Front street, the present stand. Tlie firm 
is now composed of Henry ('. Butcher, Howard Butcher and Henry P. Dar- 
lington, trading under the firm title of Washington Butcher's 8ons. When the 
business was first established groceries and jn-ovisions were the stock in trade 
conjointly, there being at that early time no houses trading exclusively in pro- 
visions, but for the last thirty years the latter has been handled exclusively, 
with the exception of curing syrups, salt, salt])etre and other articles used by 
pork and Iieef packers, and lard oil, for the jiressing of which, a factory has 
been erected, with a capacity of 400 barrels per week. Rice is dealt in largely 
also, it being received on consignment from traders in the South. The firm in 
1874 established a branch house in Chicago. The extension of the field of 
operations was owing to the extraordinary increase of the provision trade in 
late yeai-s, and this reciuired the presence of one of the firm in the growing 
west, the greatest hog breeding district in the world. Accordingly, Mr. Dar- 
lington was sent to Chicago to take the management of the branch establish- 
ment, and still resides there. Chicago is accessible within a few hours to all 
the other principal packing points, and is acknowledged to be the leading pro- 
vision centre in the world. The business done annually by the Chicago 
branch is very large, the sales last year amounting to $3,000,000 and upward, 
while the purchases were enormous and far exceeded the sales, and were not 
only for parties in the United States, but in the ( 'anadian provinces, and largely 
on European account. Early in the present yeai- an office and warehouse were 
o})ened in New York, principally to facilitate handling the canned meats, for 
which the firm are agents. The firm, besides dealing on its own individual 
account, are the agents for several sjiecialties of high renown, as follows : S. 
Davis, Jr.'s celebrated diamond brand of hams, breakfast bacon, beef, &c., Cin- 
cinnati, ( )hio ; Brougham's celebrated cooked meats put up in Chicago in 
Brougham's })atent canisters; Wilson's Packing Company's celebrated canned 
cooked meats, Chicago, Ills.; Richardson & Robbins' celebrated boneless 
cooked hams, Dover, Del., and the celebrated brand of " pure sugar-loaf 
syrup," which is used ))y most of the principal packers in the United States, 
and which, during the past five seasons, has cured 300,000 tierces or 6,000,000 
hams. The trade of the Philadelphia house is confined i)rincipally to Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Mai'yland and throughout all the southern 
States bordering on the Atlantic and the (rulf. The southern trade is very exten- 
sive, the house having agents in most of the leading cities of the South. This 
trade during the past few years has rapidly increased. The firm's old and fa- 
vorably known I-X-L brand of hams, bacons, lard, beef, &c., are sought after by 
the trade, and has added greatly to the reputation of the house. The brand is esjjc- 
cially popular in the north and south. The firm was the first to bring to this city 
western dressed cattle, beef and mutton in refrigerator cars, and the success of 
the enterprise has been clearly demonstrated by the extraordinary demand and 
consumption of these meats. The warehouses of the firm in this city are as 
completely arranged for the transaction of the business as any in the country, 
and are large and commodious, ample apparatus for the perfection of every de- 
tail being provided, and the smoke and ice houses are unsurpassed. Both con- 
tain the latest inventions and improvements. The ice storage vaults are 50x600 
feet, while the smoke houses have a capacity of 500,000 pounds of bacon per week. 
The aggregate amount of business done by the firm is about ten to eleven 
million dollars per annum, and is steadily increasing each year. 

Washington Butcher, who stood at the head of the house for many years, died 
in 1873, and during his successful career gave it an imjjctus that will be long 
and lasting. When he died he was a director in eleven corporations, besides be- 
ing senior Director of the Pennsylvania Rail Road and President of the American 
Steamship Company. He was a man of marked business sagacity, and to his 
exertions Philadelphia owes much of the prominence she occupies in the mer- 
cantile world. He was the pioneer in the California trade, and shipped many 
cargoes on speculation to the new Eldorado when the gold fever broke out. 
Among the patrons of the house, in times past, was Stephen Girard, and several 
of the signers of the Declaration of In(le|)endence, and the present firm now 



show as curiositios hiisinoss rcceijits (ImIimI hack to tlu' colonial days. The con- 
cern is one of the solid institutions of I'hiladclpliia, and the linn now mana- 
ging it are among the most cntci'prising and |)ros]>ei'ons to he fonml in the Uni- 
ted States. 


Tliere is no (jnestion as to the anti<|nity of ])ottery. Its manufacture is as oUl 
as the lunnan race itself, and its aiiplication almost universal — ohjccts of pottery 
liaving heen traced to tlie oldest semi-hai-harians. It is interesting to note the 
transition from the moulding of rude articles, in sun-dried clay, to the highly 
ornamented articles of luxury, re(|niring the utmost skill and dexterity in the 
nianipidation. The " Terra Cotta" (Italian for Itaked clay) ^Vorks, which is 
the su))ject of this sketch, is a yonng house in years, hut is in the van for enter- 
prise. The buildings were erected at Sjiring Mill, Montgomery county, Pa., 
early in the year ISfifi, by A. S. Moorhead, of Pottsville, Pa., and William L. 
Wilson, of Philadelphia. A disastrous lire on the 16th of February, 1869, de- 
stroyed the structures, with all their contents. Nothing dismayed, however, 
these gentlemen went to work to clear aM"ay the wreck, and on the very day of 
the conflagration had matured plans for rebuilding on even a more extendefl 
scale. Thus arose, on the ruins of the old factory, the i)resont works of nearly 
twelve times the capacity, and, in its line, the largest in the United States. 
This visitation did not interrupt the business of the firm, and consumers were 
sui)plied with the usual promi)tness. In building their new structures they 
made assurance doubly sure by using heavy stone walls, iron roofs, joists, gir- 
ders, pillars, Ac, and arches and chinniey and boiler stacks of " terra cotta " 
(their own manufacture), all with the design to keep out the devouring element 
in the futin-e. The f(n-mer ])uildings being too small for their rapidly-increas- 
ing business, they decided to give themselves full capacity, and had oO, ()()() 
sijuare feet of flooi'ing undercover; but even this they have already demon- 
strated is too small for the demand, and have now incieased it to over 7-),()(XI 
feet. In the manufacture of clay sewer pipes, the Moorhead Clay AVorks stand 
unexcelled in (piality and unrivalled in size. The largest iiii)e of this kind 
made in foreign countries was said to be 80 inch bore, with an area of 707 
square inches, which was overtaken and passed by this young American house, 
and, to-day, they actually turn out an article 4S inches in the bore, and an area 
of 1810 sqnare inches. As to tensile and crushing strength, and durability — 
the important essentials of a got)d drain pii>e — the firm ))rocured the best im- 
])orted ])i)ies and placed them, with their own of similar calibre, in the hands 
(jf an eminent engineer, with a view to making a com))arative test between the 
foreign and the domestic article, and the showing was that the average Ameri- 
can pipe was fifteen per cent, less in weight, and, at the same time, nearly fifty 
per cent, stronger tlian the foreign pipes. This is a very gratifying result to 
all interested in the success of home manufactures. They have lately produced 
chinmey tops of six feet diameter and ISo high, weighing ()()00 potmds, be- 
lieved to be by very far tlie largest pieces t)f terra cotta ware ever made. Their 
oflice is at No. 11 south Seventh street. This firm also manufactures, besides 
the indispensable drain pijie, terra cotta articlesof a more ornamental cluu-U'ter, 
such as vases of various patterns and designs, chinmey toj>s, window boxes, 
cuspidores, tiles, statuary, &c., besides j)lund)ers' ware, and articles inviting the 
attention of engineers, architects, city corjiorations and others. 

SON & CO. 

At 206 and 20S Market street, Philadelphia, the stranger finds an establish- 
ment whicii has all tlu' outward indications of a l^ondon drug importing house. 
Nor does the analogy cease with the exterior, for the habit of the firm is to 
transact its business in a quiet and unostentatious maimer, as any one who has 
visited the oflice can testify. The present firm is composed of two young men. 
\\\w, in 1S6(), became the successors of one of our oldest .and most respected 
liouses, that of I'rowning I'ros. Indeed, some of ihe llNtures of that lirm when 



in the jobhinn trade, are still in use, cari'ving their tiftv years of service with 
tiie solidity of earlier days. Mr. Wilson, the senior partner, is still a young 
man, and is said to have started with ijuite a limited eapital. To oflset tliis, 
energy in abundance, capacity for business, activity and earnestness, added to 
straightforwardness of character and honorable dealing, have borne their j)roper 
fruits in a deserved success. Mr. Wilson has entire charge of the importing of 
drugs, chemicals, and the like, from almost every source of production in the 
world, and is considered excellent authority in certain lines of es.sential oils, 
chemicals, &c., in this country. They do not confine themselves to specialties. 
With correspondence in almost every part of the civilized world, these gentle- 
men are prepared to contract for any drug, chemical, oil, spices, &c., as may be 
required. The products of the shores of the Mediterranean and the East In- 
dies have had, of late years, their special attention. In a house of this kind 
the bulk of their orders are necessarily large, but it is a rule of the firm to give 
equal courtesy to every buyer: in other words, to sell the customer his wants — 
a praiseworthy practice, deserving of note. Mr. L. Hassell Lapp has entire 
charge of the jobbing business, and, with a corps of able assistants, discharges 
the duties of tlie manufacturing department. The firm nuuuifactures over two 
hundred preparations, either from i)rivate and valued receii)ts, or those of the 
L'nited States PharinacopaMa, and nothing is allowed to leave the house unless 
it is of the very finest (puxlity, and packaged in the most unexceptionable man- 
ner, for Mr. Lapp is a thorough pharmacist. They have, of late, enlarged and 
replenished the dej^artment of druggists' sundries, and now present an almost 
endless variety of foreign and domestic combs, hair, nail, and tooth brushes, 
soap, perfumery, &c. Correspondence in relation to their goods will receive 
prompt attention, and courtesy is always assured at an interview. The firm 
manufacture cohu's of every shade, but of one (piality, that of strict purity; no 
second grade is ground by this concern. William M. Wilson & Co. are con- 
trolling agents of Luth's Harmless Vegetable Colors, Royal Standard White 
Lead, Enamel paint, and other first-class articles. 



The superiority of the Bituminous Coal of Pennsylvania is acknowledged, 
and its use has latterly lieen very nuich increased, not (uily for the generation 
of steam-power, but for the re<luction of metals and other jiurjioses. The trade 
in our own State has made rapid progress, and outside markets have been en- 
tered and the business extended to gigantic proportions. Mr. R. B. Wigton is 
the owner of over three thousand acres of land in Huntingdon, Bedford, and 
Clearfield counties, underlied with the best quality of Bituminous Coal known 
to exist in this State. His experience covers a i)eriod of twenty years in min- 
ing and shipping froju the Broad Top and Clearfield regions. With perhaps 
a single excejition, Mr. Wigton can t)oint to an aggregate tonnage, for the past 
ten years, greater than that of any other shiiiper of Bituminous Coal, and his 
business is vearlv increasing. His Morrisdale Clearfield Coal is in use on more 


Ocean Steamers, Locomotives, in more Rolling Mills, Iron, (rlass, Cotton, and 
Woolen Mannfactnring Establishments, than ajiy other ('leartiekl Coal. One 
of the severest tests, we are told, to which bituminous coal could be put, was 
made by City Ice Boats last winter. They were supplied with the Morrisdale 
Coal by R. B. Wigtcm, and the report says it has given better satisfaction than 
any coal they ever used. Franklin Piatt, in his Geological Rejiort of Pennsyl- 
vania, says it shows greater working capacity, or more strength, than any other 
Clearfield coal. Added to this endorsement we find, in letters from Engineers, 
Superintendents of Industrial Establishments, and others, testimony of tlie 
most flattering character as to its (pialities. Thus, the Engineer of the New 
Jersey Midland Railway finds it "clear and free from sulphur, makes plenty 
of steam, and for this reason goes further than many other coals. It ha.s more 
of the heating power and less impurities than many others, and the same bulk 
will make as much steam as any coal (lie) ever used." And again, the Ph<enix 
Iron Company, through their Secretary, write of it as a first-class coal in every 
respect ; so much so, that it called forth a special report in its favor from their 
inspector. Without multiplying evidence, these give the general tenor of the 
many letters Mr. Wigton has received, some specifying qualities suited to their 
wants, such as " free burning, clear of impurities, small amount of ash, no 
clinker," &c., but all in the highest degree flattering. Messrs. William P. 
Clyde & Co. use large (piantities of the Morrisdale Coal on their steamers — ^in 
fact, nine-tenths of all the Bituminous Coal that that firm has used in the past 
two years was furnished by Mr. Wigton. Besides, he can refer, also, to the 
Transatlantic Steamship Company, New York and Charleston Steamship 
Company, Old L)ominion Steamship Company, and the Williams&Guion Line, 
all of New York. 

Mr. Wigton has transshi})ping wharves at Greenwich, Philadelphia ; South 
Amboy, N. J., and Canton, Baltimore. His general ofliceis in this city, at No. 
208 south Fourth street, with branches in New York, Boston, antl Providence, 
R. I. 




Aberdeen 100 ; Lamokin 62 

Arsenal 7 Linwood G4 

Back River 103 

Baltimore 104 

Bayview Junction 104 

Beilevue 05 

Bonnaffbn 11 

Bush River 100 

Charlestown 97 

Chases 102 

Chester 30 

Clavraont 05 

Crum Lynne 27 

Darby 13 j 

Delaware Junction 02 | 

pjddystone 29 i 

Edgemoor 06 j 

Edgewood lOl i 

Elkton 95 J 


Fifty-eighth Street 9j 

Glenolden 17 

Gray's Ferry 8| 

Gunpowder 102 

Harewood 102 

Havre-de-Grace 99 

HoUv Oak t)5 

Magnolia 102 

Middle River 103 

Moore's 21 

Mount Moriah 10 

Newark. 94 

Newport 93 

North East 96 

Norwood 19 



Paschal 12 

Pencador 94 

Perrvinansville 100 

PerrVville 98 

Philadelphia 110 

Principio 98 

Prospect Park 21 

Ridlev Park 22 

Sharon Hill 15 

Stanton 93 

Stenuner's Run 103 

Thirteen-mile Switch 103 

Tliurlow 63 

Trainer's 63 

Wilmington ('■<i'> 



Bickley, M. H 37 

Blakeley & Sons 35 

Branin's Carriage Works 54 

Bunting's Lumber & Coal Yards.. 56 

Cochran Bros 37 

Crozier Seminar v 42 


Chester Improvement Co 65 

Chester Edge Tool Works 44 

Chester Rolling Mills 50 

Chester Mutual Ins. Co 58 

Del. River Ship-building Works.. 47 

Delaware County Republican 55 


PMdystone Print Works 52 

pjvans & Co.'s Carriaj^e Fai'tory.... 4o 

(Jartside & Sons o9 

Grundy's Livery Stable oit 

Green's Vulcan Works (ll 

Hall & Son's Cotton Mills 38 

Hinkson & Smedley ■)7 

Hudson, Sparks & Co 35 

Hyatt's Military Academy 32 

James, Eber 56 

Ladomus, Jewelry Store 60 

Larkin, Lewis M 52 

Lewis & Parker 41 

Lilley & Son 40 

McColhim, Frank K 54 

Minshall & Son 60 

Mitchell, J. A 59 I Weaver, Wm., Jr 39 

Morris House 52 Wetlierill & Co 36 

Morton Black & Bro 43 I 


Oglesliy, Win 61 

Patterson's Mills 41 

Paiste, D. P 40 

Penn'a Military Academy 32 

Powhattan Mills " 46 

Roach's Ship Yards 47 

Shaw & Esrey 46 

Simpson & Sons' Print Works..... 52 

Story & Son 60 

Taylor's Agricultural Store 53 

Vulcan Works 61 

Washington House 58 

Ward, William 56 

Walter Y. S 55 



Baker, John G. & Co 74 

Bradford, James 89 

Bush, Geo. W. & Son 73 

Clayton House 83 

Cooling & Bro 91 

Downing & Price 83 

Ferris & Garrett 77 

Flinn & Jackson 92 

Frist & Allnion 86 

Green, John. 


Harlan & HoUingsworth 87 

Harnian, J. & J. N 79 

Horn, Chas. W 80 

McCluskey, W. J. & Co 81 


McLear & Kendall 74 

Moore & Brother 76 

Pusev, Jones & Co 88 

PuseV, Scott & Co 81 

Pyle,'lsaacC 83 

Richardson, Jacob 77 

Robinson & Bro 76 

Shaw, W. T 81 

Springer, Morley & (iause 85 

Tatnall & llit'hardson 78 

Taylor & Hcadcnkopf 78 

Trump Bros 89 

Walton, Whann tfc Co 88 

Wright, Wm. H 78 



Lawson, Robert Sc Co 107 | Maxwell, F. (J. tS: Co. 


. 108 



American Dredging Co 123 

Baldwin Locomotive Works 120 

Bush Hill Ironworks 136 

Butcher, Washington tS: Sons 13() 

Claxt(m, Remscn tS: Hafllelinger... IIS 

Clyde, Wm. 1>. &Co 128 

Commercial National Bank 12() 


Felton, Ivuw t'v Sililey 135 

(Jirard LilV and Trust Co 128 

Hood, Bonbright iS: Co 122 

James, Kent, Santee iS: Co 124 

Kittanning Coal Company 132 


Landreth, David & Sons 121 

Moorhead Clay Works 138 

Moore, James 136 

Morris, Wheeler & Co 133 

Murphy, Win. F. & Sons 130 

Peirce's Union Business CciUeije... 11"> 
Pennsylvania Fire Ins. Co 123 


Sharpless & Sons 134 

Steel, E. T. I'c Co 125 

Stokes cS: Parrish 127 

Wanamaker, John 131 

Wigton, R. B 139 

Wilson, Win. & Co 138 

Winsor, Ilenrv A: Co llo 


Passenger and Freight Depots at Philadelphia, 

Bartram Hall, residence of A. M. Plistwick, 

Mansion of Hugh Mcllvaine, 58tli street, 

Bonnaflbn Rail Road Station, 

Residence of James Price, near Darby, 

Sharon Hill Station, 

Residence of Isaac N. Clotliier, Sliaron Hill, 

(ilenolden Pic-nic Pavilion, 

Norwood Station and (irounds, 

Residence of (ieo. W. Shirley, Prospect Park, 

Ridley Park Depot Buildings, 

Ridley Park Lake, 

Ridley Park Hotel, 

Residences at Ridley Park, 

Residence of S. T. Fuller, Crum Lynne, 

Pennsylvania Military Academy, 

Crozier Theological Institute, 

Roach's Ship-building and Engine Works, 

Chester Rolling ]\Iil Is, 

Lamokin Station, 

Round-house at AVilmington, 

Clayton House, Wilmington, 

Business House of Flinn & .Jackson, 

Girard College, .... 

United States Mint, 

New Public Buildings, . . . ' 

Publisliing house of Claxton, Remsen & HafHefinger, 

Seed Houses of David Landreth & Sons, 

New Masonic Temple, 

Independence Hall, 

Academy of Music and Horticultural Hall, 

































Importing, Package and Jobbing 



Paloi)t j\fe3icine^, |)ru^|i^t^' ^un3rie^, 

Mjs. 206 and 208 Market Street, 


Cornet' of Fourth and Market Streets, 

Manufacturer, Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 


) ' 


YAMMmmmB, bye btwff% 


in, m 







Wholesale and retail <lealers in 
Iron, Steel, and Coach Hardware ol' 
every description ; also,afnll lineof 






.Ajri'iits f(ir tilt' National I'aiiit Co.'s 


Ready for use. These goods are 
put up In Gallons, Half-e;allons, 
Quarts, Pints, and Half-pints, 





Life Insurance Company of Philadelphia. 

Incorporated 1847. 

One of the Oldest and Best. 


It leads in Financial Strength. Large Assets are not the true test of the sol- 
vency of Life Companies, but the Ratio of Assets to Liabil- 
ities shows their relative strength. 

The Penn Mutual has Assets, $5,940,006. Liabilities, $4,767,673. 

$125 Cash Assets for every $100 of Liabilities. 

It leads in Dividends to Policy-holders. Has paid more Dividends in numlier, 
and of a larger average per centage than any other Company. 

It leads in Business Management. Prudence, Econoitiy, Fair and Honorable 
dealing, being its leading characteristics, its ofRcers are elected by th(^ Policy- 
holders, and not by proxy votes. It is popular with the people. It increased its 
business in 1876 more than any other Company. 


It has received from Interest, - - - $3,526,235.60 

It has paid Death-claims and Endowments, - 3.462,691.79 

It has paid Dividends to Policy-holders, - 3,568,289.04 

ESTABLISHED A. J). isr>4. 

Baltimore Collar Factory. 


No. 116 ^A;'est Fayette Street, 

(Between Charles and Liberty Streets,) 


We refer, by pernnission, to the following Saddlery Hardware Firms 

Edav'd Jenkins & Sons, II. McNally & Co., 

Mackenzie Brothers, Mantz, Markey & Co. 



First-class accommodations for permanent or Transient Boarders 



tlte Dclairarc Ri'tpi-. 



N. B. — Aiii[tl(' Slahle .ui ouiiiiod;!! ions and a fn'sl-class hosllei-. 


ThG American Absorption Pads 







Liver Complaint, 

Bilious Fevers, 
Kidney Affections, 
Female Weakness, 

Are purely Vegetable, harmless and effective, and will CIJRK 

any deran^red condition if the system, whether arising from malarial or o her 
causes, includinti Fever and Ague. Billious or other fevers. Dyspepsia, Neuralgia, 
Rheumatism, Asthma, Bronchitis. Consumption, Coughs, Colds, Heada<-hes, Skin 
Diseases, Jiumdif e. Female Complaints and Irregularities, and all diseases arising 
from a derangement of the Genital organs, liright's Disease of the Kidneys, Dia- 
betes, etc., etc. Our Pads are an absolute specific in all cases arising li-oni a <leranged 
condition of the Kidneys and Urinary Organs. Prices: 

Liver and Stomache Pads, $1.2.5, 1 .50, 200 Kidney Pads, $2 

Chest and Lung Pads, $l.('iO, 2, ,3. Abdominal, $2- 

Foot Pads, ,50 Cents. 

Mailed FREE upon re<>eipt of Price. Send f'Or Cireular. 

Consultation free. I>ady Physician in Ladies' Koom. All communications 
must be addressed to 


loao Areli Sti-eet, I*hila<l<'lpliiM. 


Thermometers, Kye-Ciilasses, 

Tele<ieope8, Microscopes. 

Speef acles. Ac. A.. 

Special attention given by Skilled Workmen 
to rid.jiistiDg Spectacles suited to the sight. 

R. & J. BECK, 

931 Chestnut Street. Philadelphia. 


Warranted to ■ Iniiiries.Lame- H 

cure Rheunia- ■ ness, &r. It H 

tism. Neural- H saved a man's H 

gia.Cuts, Burns B leg froin ampu- H 

and all Aches Hastation and cur- H 

.^- Plains K(irp<: ^^^^eH \i hen in a- ^^ 

Warranted to 
cure Rheuma- 
tism, Neural 
gia,Cuts, Burns 
and all Aches 
& Pains, Sores 

tism of c5 years standing. 

equal for Man or Animals. 

and 50 cents. 

Agents wanted. 150 per 

Terms to 

n ess, &r. 1 t 
saved a man's 
leg from ampu- 
tation and cur- 
ed R h e u m a- 
It positively has no 
Sold everywhere. 75 

I'ent. profit. Writ<" lor 

F. REGISTER, Prop., 

324 8. MU Ht.. Phila. 


South Broad St., Cor. of Ellsworth,*^ 



/ heep in t'^tock the Larf/rd Variety of Fine 

, Patent Medicines formerly $1.00 now 75c 

50c " 40c 

OHEMICALS, .< " .. 25c " 20c 

SPONGES AlcQ^k's Porous Plasters, 2 for 25 cts. 





20 Cents Per round, *^^'t- ^^'< • 

To he fovnd in this aiti/, and at prices fa sidf the fivun, heinf/ 
fiillji 'i'l per cent, Icnvcr than the usual retail rates. 

Vonr patronaf/e respectfuUtj solicited, 



Cor. Eleventh and Market Streets, Philada. 

<URI.IS DAVIS, Proprietor. 

Rates, JfiSS.rSO ancl «?3.00 Per Day. 

This popular hotel has been thoroughly renovated. A Passenger 
Elevator and Electric Bells have been introduced. The -appointments 
throughout are first-class with special accommodation for commercial 

^^r. J. W. STOUGHTON, 

N.). \\\1 VINE STREET, 



at the great crowds of people that SURPRISED 

go to Stoughton's daily for those SURPRISED 

beautiful gum enameled teeth. SURPRISED 

We are determined to insert Teeth SURPRISED 

at prices to defv competition. .\ SURPRISED 

full set ' SURPRISED 

$8, $10, $12 AND $15. 

EVERYBODY equal to any %2t^ set made elsewhere. SURPRISED 

1117 Teeth repaired while the patient waits. Filling, '!: NINE ST. 

1117 ysciojsi.oo VINE ST. 

1 117 Extracting only 25c. No pain, no screams, VINE .ST. 

1 1 17 no danger. ' '. ■'"^' 1 ;._. VINE ST. 

1 1 17 Try to call and examine our stock before \TNE ST. 

1117 going elsewhere. / VINE ST.